Tails is easily installed to a USB storage device by cloning an existing Tails system that is running from DVD or USB. Tails Installer also supports upgrades from an ISO image or from the currently running Tails system.

The choice between possible destination devices or partitions is proposed amongst the available removable storage devices.


Tails Installer can perform a full upgrade of an already installed USB stick. During this process, nothing is modified on the target drive but the Tails system partition and the Master boot record.

At the end of the upgrade process, we upgrade syslinux with the binary found in utils/linux/syslinux on the Tails system partition. Likewise, upgrade the boot device's MBR with the one found in utils/mbr/mbr.bin on the Tails system partition. This ensures that the installed version of syslinux matches the version of the COM32 modules that are shipped by the version of Tails the target drive was just upgraded to.

Security discussion: with this mechanism in place, anyone who can feed an arbitrary ISO into Tails Installer can run arbitrary code (stored in the ISO filesystem as utils/linux/syslinux) as the user running Tails Installer. We have no mechanism to run Tails Installer with elevated privileges currently, so this should not be a problem: being able to run tails-installer with arbitrary arguments is equivalent to being able to run arbitrary code already.

Mode of operation and booting methods

In order to be able to have non-destructive upgrades, blind overwrites (using dd or similar raw copy methods) of the boot media is not possible (even when Tails ships hybrid ISO images).

Two alternatives booting methods have been investigated:

  1. Boot ISO file: Set up a bootloader on the USB stick that is able to boot an ISO image dropped into the right directory of it. Even early boot files (kernel, initramfs) are loaded from inside the ISO file.

  2. Copy ISO's content: Copy needed files (mainly the kernel, initramfs and SquashFS image that live in the live/ directory) from the ISO filesystem to the destination partition, then set up a bootloader that uses files in that directory. The end result is more or less equivalent to dd'ing the ISO image to the USB stick, but achieved with a non-destructive process.

We have settled on the copy ISO's content way, mostly because it is overall simpler, more robust, and allows implementing incremental upgrades relatively easily.


The storage device is partitioned using GPT. Using GPT has several desirable properties:

  • The system partition is hidden from Windows using the hidden flag of GPT. Hopefully this should prevent some misuse of Tails system partition, even if we explicitly discourage users to plug their Tails USB stick to a running system (Windows among other OS).
  • sgdisk can run on Windows whereas no other free partitioning tools are available under Windows for other partioning method.
  • Partitions can be labeled. The persistence setup tools can easily detect the right partitions without blind tries.

The system partition (holding Tails) has a size of 2.5 GB, with the following estimates:

  • Tails ISO: 1GB
  • 3 incremental upgrade kits, 200 MB each: 600MB
  • free space needed to install an incremental upgrade kit: 2 * 200 MB = 600 MB

The Tails system partition uses a FAT32 filesystem, mainly because it is the one supported by SYSLINUX we may easily create, in a programmatic manner, from Windows systems. This choice has consequences that are barely related to the USB installation task: the restrictions on filenames imposed by the FAT32 filesystem limits what can be shipped on the system parition (e.g. Tails documentation is only available inside Tails).

The rest of the device is left unpartitionned for an encrypted storage partition that can be used for the persistence feature.


We need to pass the -u and -n switches in any case; specific modes of operation need other switches:

  • Initial installation needs -P and -m, upgrade does not.
  • Cloning needs --clone, installing from ISO does not.

We have .desktop files for the following usecases:

  • Clone the currently running Tails onto a shiny new USB stick: --clone -P -m
  • Upgrade a (non-running) Tails system using a ISO file: no additional switch required.
  • Upgrade a (non-running) Tails system using another, fresher, running Tails: no additional switch required.

Why a fork of liveusb-creator?

After an initial roundup of existing tools, we decided to use Fedora's liveusb-creator as a basis, for reasons that are now obsolete due to more recent design choices. While we did most of our initial adaptation work on liveusb-creator with future upstreaming of our changes in mind, it proved to be hard, and future extension seems now out of question. Our future plans include moving to another piece of software as a basis, and hopefully working more closely with this future upstream of ours.

Source code

The Tails Installer source code lives in a Git repository: