Tor (and I2P) sometimes freaks out if they detect too large clock skews. It is therefore important for us to ensure that Tails somehow automatically synchronizes the system time at start in a safe manner.
There probably is a whole bunch of fingerprinting attacks an attacker could mount if it could pose as the time server and mess with the user's time. We therefore want to be able to authenticate the servers that provide us with supposedly accurate time information. Home-made research demonstrated that NTPv4's server authentication features do not fit our usecase yet, so we have to look for solutions elsewhere.
Since we want no direct internet traffic, the time syncing should be run through Tor, but that creates a catch 22: we want to set the time using Tor so we can make Tor usable.
In short this is how time syncing is performed when Tails starts:
- Start Tor. If Tor is already working, skip to HTP step.
- Let Tor fetch a consensus (wait up to 150 seconds twice, restarting Tor in between).
- If the time is too badly off, the authority certificate may not be
valid, so we set the system time to the
valid-afterof the unverified consensus Tor fetched for us, which will guarantee that the certificate and consensus are all valid. Then we restart Tor (since it behaves badly with time jumps during the early bootstrap stages) and wait until it accepts the consensus and finishes the bootstrap.
- Run HTP (see below) through Tor to get a more correct system time.
A notification is shown while the whole process is running, informing the user that Tor may not function properly before it has finished (e.g. hidden services running Tor prior to version 0.2.3.7-alpha requires clients to have a time that is no more than 30 minutes incorrect).
This idea originates from Liberte Linux'
tordate script which uses
Tor's consensus file to initially roughly set the time. The consensus
file contains such information:
valid-after 2010-12-27 16:00:00 fresh-until 2010-12-27 17:00:00 valid-until 2010-12-27 19:00:00
A consensus is valid for three hours. If the system time is in the
[valid-after, valid-after + 2.5 hours] range,
Else, it sets the system time to the middle of the [valid-after,
fresh-until] range and restarts Tor.
The system time is then ensured to be correct enough to enable Tor to successfully open a circuit, and HTP can then be used to more accurately set time via Tor. The whole idea is that while Tor does not manage to open a circuit if the system time is too incorrect, it still is able to retrieve its consensus file as soon as Internet connectivity is available.
tordate's approach essentially removes the time skew check, which is used to prevent replay of consensus data. Let's discuss this class of attacks.
First, replaying a consensus older than one week or so results in preventing access to the Tor network, and that's all, because onion keys will be wrong. An attacker who is in a position to replay a consensus to you could anyway do this, unrelated to time, so the issue at hand boils down to replaying a consensus not older than one week or so.
Second, the same type of attacker as above could also try to forge a completely new consensus, which would be unverifiable since the attacker doesn't have access to the authorities' keys. We would still set Tails' system time according to the unverifiable consensus, but Tor would refuse to use the forged consensus, resulting in complete denial-of-service. An attacker in that position could do denial-of-service attacks in many other ways, so this doesn't make the situation any worse.
Third, things are different depending on if you're using a bridge or not.
If not using a bridge: Tails starts without a cached consensus, so its Tor client starts by connecting directly to a directory authority (and not to a directory mirror / entry guard), so feeding you an old consensus requires the attacker either to break SSL, or to control the directory authority your Tor client connects to. Not good, but probably a compromise we can make.
If using a bridge: your bridge can replay an old (one week old max.) consensus, which is used until HTP has fixed the time; not good, but probably a compromise we can make. If your bridge also can set up a SSL MitM attack against the HTP connections (e.g. the attacker also controls a SSL CA shipped by Debian), it can trick you into using this old consensus for max. one week, which is much worse.
HTP is not really a protocol, but uses a feature from HTTP, aka web traffic. According the specifications of HTTP/1.1 (RFC 2616) a web server needs to put a timestamp in a response to a web browser request. In web browsers you don't see the HTTP headers, but these headers contain a timestamp in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), accurate in seconds.
These timestamps can be used to get a pretty good estimate of the current time, even though not to the same accuracy level as NTP.
Being based on HTTP, HTP can use its ready-made features related to server authentication, such as X.509 certificates... for the time being.
As what follows clearly shows, the upstream HTP has quite a few drawbacks that make it unfit for our needs. That's why Tails uses a custom version of the Perl HTP client into config/chroot local-includes/usr/local/sbin/htpdate. The repository we copied this script from can be found there:
For reasons detailed below, this version of htpdate uses curl for all of its HTTP operations.
/usr/local/sbin/htpdate we use only connects to HTTPS servers,
and delegates TLS X.509 certificate
verification to curl. It also uses several different pools of time
sources, and if there are too many that fail for any given pool,
e.g. because of failed certificate checking or being unreachable, the
pool is considered to be potentially compromised and htpdate aborts.
curl is also directed to only use TLSv1 as a "secure" protocol.
What sources should be trusted? This is of course also a problem with NTP.
The HTP pools used by Tails are based on stable and reliable webservers that get great amounts of traffic. They are categorized into three different pools according to their members' relationship to the members in the other pools; any member in a one pool should be unlikely to share logs (or other identifying data), or to agree to send fake time information, with a member from the the other pools. The pools are as follows:
- The "pal" pool are run by groups that are likely to take great care of their visitors' privacy.
- The "foe" pool are managed by adversaries of the "pal" pool.
- The "neutral" pool members have a neutral raltionship to both the "pal" and "foe" pool.
The pools are listed in config/chroot local-includes/etc/default/htpdate.
htpdate pick three random servers (one from each
pool), and then build the mediate of the three advertised dates.
Tails runs HTP through Tor, so the fingerprintability should be limited to traffic flow only. It should be noted that HTP only fetches the HTTP header, so fingerprinting based on the known traffic pattern when fetching the full page of any of the members of Tails' HTP source pools is not possible.
Our initial time guess based on the Tor consensus is probably easier to fingerprint, though: a fresh Tor is started, and restarted again right after the consensus has been downloaded.
Tails developers still need to think thoroughly of these questions: are such fingerprinting possibilities a serious problem? What kind of efforts and compromise should be made to prevent these?
A Network Manager hook runs the whole thing: config/chroot local-includes/etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/20-time.sh.