Queste istruzioni richiedono:

  • macOS 10.10 (Yosemite) o successivi

Avviare in macOS.

Install Tails using Etcher

Install an intermediary Tails using Etcher

In this step, you will install an intermediary Tails using the Tails USB image that you downloaded earlier.

Installare Etcher

  1. Clicca sul link seguente per scaricare Etcher:

    Scarica Etcher per macOS

  2. Apri il download di Etcher (immagine disco DMG).

  3. Per installare Etcher, trascina l'icona di Etcher all'interno dell'icona Applicazioni .

  4. Chiudi la finestra di installazione di Etcher.

    In maniera facoltativo, espelli l'immagine disco di Etcher dal desktop.

Invece di installare Etcher, potete anche installare Tails utilizzando dd sulla riga di comando.

  1. Assicuratevi che la chiavetta USB sia scollegata.

  2. Aprite Terminale da Applicazioni ▸ Utilità ▸ Terminal.app.

  3. Esegui il comando seguente:

    diskutil list

    Restituisce un elenco dei dispositivi di archiviazione sul sistema. Per esempio:

    /dev/disk0 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *500.1 GB disk0 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_HFS MacDrive 250.0 GB disk0s2 3: EFI 134.1 GB disk0s3 4: Microsoft Basic Data BOOTCAMP 115.5 GB disk0s4

  4. Plug your USB stick in the computer.

  5. Eseguite nuovamente lo stesso comando:

    diskutil list

    Your USB stick appears as a new device in the list. Check that its size corresponds to the size of your USB stick.

    /dev/disk0 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme ∗500.1 GB disk0 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_HFS MacDrive 250.0 GB disk0s2 3: EFI 134.1 GB disk0s3 4: Microsoft Basic Data BOOTCAMP 115.5 GB disk0s4 /dev/disk1 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: FDisk_partition_scheme *8.0 GB disk1 1: Apple_HFS Untitled 1 8.0 GB disk1s1

  6. Prendi nota del nome del dispositivo della tua chiave USB. In questo esempio, la chiave USB è di 8.0 GB e il suo nome dispositivo è /dev/disk1. Per te potranno essere differenti.

    Se non siete sicuri del nome del dispositivo dovreste smettere la procedura oppure rischiate di sovrascrivere qualunque disco rigido sul sistema.

  7. Eseguite i seguenti comandi per copiare l'immagine USB scaricata precedentemente sulla chiavetta USB.

    Sostituire:

    • tails.img con il path all'immagine USB

      If you are unsure about the path to the USB image, you can insert the correct path by dragging and dropping the icon of the USB image from Finder onto Terminal.

    • device con il nome del dispositivo trovato nel passaggio 6

      You can try adding r before disk to make the installation faster.

    diskutil unmountDisk device

    dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M && sync

    Dovreste ottenere qualcosa del genere:

    dd if=/Users/me/tails-amd64-3.12.img of=/dev/rdisk9 bs=16m && sync

    Se non compaiono messaggi di errore, Tails è stato copiato sulla chiavetta USB. La copia richiede tempo, solitamente alcuni minuti.

Se ottenete un errore di Permesso negato , provate ad aggiungere sudo all'inizio del comando:

sudo dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16m && sync

If you get an invalid number ‘16m’ error, try using 16M instead:

dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M && sync

The installation is complete once the command prompt reappeared.

Install the intermediary Tails

USB stick plugged in the computer
USB stick plugged on the left
  1. Plug in the USB stick on which you want to install Tails the intermediary Tails.

    Tutti i dati su questa chiavetta USB andranno persi.

    The Persistent Storage of your Tails USB stick will not be copied to the temporary Tails.

  2. Open Finder and choose Etcher in Applications.

    Open the Etcher download.

    At the security warning, confirm that you want to open Etcher.

    Etcher starts.

  3. Click the Select image button.

    Choose the USB image that you downloaded earlier.

    Make sure that the USB image has an .img file extension.

    If the image has an .iso file extension, it is not the correct image. Please go back to the download step for installing from Windows download step for installing from macOS. download step for upgrading from Windows download step for upgrading from macOS.

  4. Etcher should automatically select your USB stick. Otherwise, click the Change link to choose a different USB stick.

    USB image installed on USB stick
    USB image installed on USB stick on the left
  5. Click Flash.

    Enter your password if you are asked for it.

    The installation takes a few minutes.

    After installing Tails, Etcher verifies the installation.

    If the verification of Etcher fails, try to install again or to use a different USB stick.

  6. Close Etcher.

    If a notification about the USB stick not being readable appears, click Eject to eject the USB stick.

Tails USB stick

Congratulations, you have installed Tails on your USB stick!

You will now restart your computer on this USB stick. It can be a bit complicated, so good luck! But it might not work on your Mac model, so good luck!

If you are already in Tails, go directly to step 3: Verify that the other Tails is up-to-date.

Apri queste istruzioni su un altro dispositivo

Nei prossimi passaggi, dovrai spegnere il computer. Per poter essere in grado di seguire le istruzioni, ti raccomandiamo di fare una delle seguenti cose:

  • Apri questa pagina sul tuo smartphone, tablet o altro computer (consigliato).

  • Stampa il resto delle istruzioni su carta.

  • Prendi nota dell'indirizzo di questa pagina per poterci tornare più tardi:

    https://tails.boum.org/install/clone/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/win/usb/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/usb/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/clone/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/expert/usb/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/linux/usb/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/clone/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/tails/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/win/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/mac/index.it.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/linux/index.it.html?back=1

Restart on the intermediary Tails

Restart on the other Tails

Restart on Tails

USB stick plugged on the left Computer restarted on USB stick Computer restarted on USB stick on the left USB stick unplugged on the right and computer restarted on USB stick on the left

Make the computer start on the USB stick

This step is the most complicated one as it depends a lot on the model of the computer:

  • On most computers, our basic instructions to get to the Boot Menu work fine.
  • On some computers, you might have to do more advanced techniques, like editing the BIOS settings.
  • On a few computers, it might currently be impossible to start Tails. But, it is very hard to know without trying.

The goal is to reach the Boot Loader of Tails. Depending on the computer, the Boot Loader might be either GRUB or SYSLINUX.

This is what GRUB looks like:

Black screen ('GNU
GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting
Mode)'.

This is what SYSLINUX looks like:

Black screen
('SYSLINUX') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails
(Troubleshooting Mode)'.

Getting to the Boot Menu

On most computers, you can press a Boot Menu key to display a list of possible devices to start from. The following instructions explain how to display the Boot Menu and start on the USB stick. The following screenshot is an example of a Boot Menu:

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Spegni il computer.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install upgrade from.

    Unplug your Tails USB stick while leaving the intermediary USB stick plugged in.

  2. Identify the possible Boot Menu keys for the computer depending on the computer manufacturer in the following list:

    ManufacturerKey
    AcerEsc, F12, F9
    AsusEsc, F8
    ClevoF7
    DellF12
    FujitsuF12, Esc
    HPF9, Esc
    LenovoF12, Novo, F8, F10
    SamsungEsc, F12, F2
    SonyF11, Esc, F10
    ToshibaF12
    others…F12, Esc

    On many computers, a message is displayed very briefly when switching on that also explains how to get to the Boot Menu or edit the BIOS settings.

  3. Switch on the computer and immediately press several times the first possible Boot Menu key identified in step 2.

  4. If the computer starts on another operating system or returns an error message, shut down the computer again and repeat step 3 for all the possible Boot Menu keys identified in step 2.

    If a Boot Menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick and press Enter.

    If the Boot Menu key that works on your computer is a different one than the first in the list, please let us know so we can improve the list. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

This animation explains how to use the Boot Menu key:

Check our list of known issues

Similar problems might have been reported already for your model of computer in our list of known issues.

Edit the BIOS settings (advanced users)

If none of the possible Boot Menu keys from the previous technique work, or if the USB stick does not appear in the Boot Menu, you might need to edit your BIOS settings. To learn how to edit the BIOS settings, search for the user manual of the computer on the support website of the manufacturer.

Take note of the changes that you apply to the BIOS settings. That way, you can revert the changes if they prevent the computer from starting on its usual operating system.

In the BIOS settings, try to apply the following changes. Some changes might not apply to certain computer models.

  • There might be an option in your BIOS to enable the Boot Menu key. Make sure that the Boot Menu key is enabled. This option might be called Boot Device List or differently depending on the computer.

  • Edit the Boot Order. Depending on the computer, you might see an entry for removable devices or USB media. Move this entry to the top of the list to force the computer to try to start from the USB stick before starting from the internal hard disk.

  • Disable Fast boot.

  • Enable CSM boot.

  • Enable Legacy boot in addition to UEFI. The computer might not start anymore on its regular operating system if you disable UEFI completely or if you only enable Legacy boot.

  • Try to upgrade the BIOS. To do so, refer to the support website of the computer manufacturer.

If none of these options work, we are sorry but you might not be able to use Tails on this computer. Feel free to report the problem to our help desk.

Reporting the problem to our help desk

Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

  1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

  2. How did you verify the USB image?

  3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

  4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

  5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

  6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

  7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

We answer requests in:

  • English
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Italian

Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install from.

  2. Switch on the computer and immediately press-and-hold the Option key (Alt key) until a list of possible startup disks appears.

    'Option' or
'alt' key in the bottom left of Mac keyboard

  3. Choose the USB stick and press Enter. The USB stick appears as an external hard disk and might be labeled EFI Boot or Windows like in the following screenshot:

    Screen
with the logo of an internal hard disk labeled 'Macintosh HD' and an
external hard disk labelled 'Windows' (selected)

    If the USB stick does not appear in the list of possible startup disks:

    1. Make sure that you have verified your download of Tails.
    2. Try installing again on the same USB stick.
    3. Try installing on a different USB stick.
    4. Try using the same USB stick to start on a different computer.
      If the same USB stick works on a different computer, please report the problem to our help desk.
  4. Reporting the problem to our help desk

    Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

    1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

    2. How did you verify the USB image?

    3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

    4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

    5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

    6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

    7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

    We answer requests in:

    • English
    • French
    • Spanish
    • Italian

    Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

  5. If your Mac displays the following error:

    Security settings do not allow this Mac to use an external startup disk.

    Then you have to change the settings of the Startup Security Utility of your Mac to authorize starting from Tails.

    To open Startup Security Utility:

    1. Turn on your Mac, then press and hold Command(⌘)+R immediately after you see the Apple logo. Your Mac starts up from macOS Recovery.

    2. When you see the macOS Utilities window, choose Utilities ▸ Startup Security Utility from the menu bar.

    3. When you are asked to authenticate, click Enter macOS Password, then choose an administrator account and enter its password.

    Startup Security Utility

    In the Startup Security Utility:

    • Choose No Security in the Secure Boot section.

    • Choose Allow booting from external media in the External Boot.

    To still protect your Mac from starting on untrusted external media, you can set a firmware password, available on macOS Mountain Lion or later. A firmware password prevents users who do not have the password from starting up from any media other than the designated startup disk.

    If you forget your firmware password you will require an in-person service appointment with an Apple Store or Apple Authorized Service Provider.

    Read more on Apple Support about:

  6. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen ('GNU
GRUB') with Tails logo and 2 options: 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting
Mode)'.

    The Boot Loader on Mac is always GRUB. It might be different on PC.

    If your computer displays the Boot Loader but then fails to start on the USB stick, it might currently be impossible to start Tails on your Mac model.

    Please report the problem to our help desk.

Reporting the problem to our help desk

Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

  1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

  2. How did you verify the USB image?

  3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

  4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

  5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

  6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

  7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

We answer requests in:

  • English
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Italian

Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

Welcome Screen

  1. One to two minutes after the Boot Loader, the Welcome Screen appears.

    If the computer display the error message Error starting GDM with your graphics card, refer to our list of known issues with graphics cards.

    If the computer stops responding or displays other error messages before getting to the Welcome Screen, refer to the troubleshooting section about Tails not starting entirely.

    Troubleshooting

    Tails does not start entirely

    The following section applies if the Boot Loader appears but not the Welcome Screen when starting Tails.

    1. Riavvia il computer sulla prima chiave USB.

    2. In the Boot Loader, choose the Troubleshooting Mode which might work better on some computers.

    3. If the Troubleshooting Mode does not work better, restart the computer again on the first USB stick.

    4. Depending on whether the Boot Loader is GRUB or SYSLINUX:

      If the Boot Loader is GRUB:

      1. Press e when GRUB appears.

        A new screen appears with more options.

        ?grub-with-options.png

      2. Navigate with the arrows of the keyboard to the end of the line that starts with linux. The line is most likely wrapped and displayed on several lines on the screen but it is a single configuration line.

      3. Premi il tasto Backspace molte volte per rimuovere l'opzione quiet dalla linea di comando.

      4. Type debug nosplash to add these options to the command line.

      5. If Tails previously failed to start and displayed the following error:

        Probing EDD (edd=off to disable)...

        Then type edd=off to add this option to the command line.

      6. Press Ctrl+X to start Tails.

      7. Hopefully, new error messages now appear when starting Tails. You can send them to our help desk by email, for example by taking a picture of the last screen and error messages.

      If the Boot Loader is SYSLINUX:

      1. Press Tab. A command line with a list of boot options appears at the bottom of the screen.

        ?syslinux-with-options.png

      2. Premi il tasto Backspace molte volte per rimuovere l'opzione quiet dalla linea di comando.

      3. Type debug nosplash to add these options to the command line.

      4. If Tails previously failed to start and displayed the following error:

        Probing EDD (edd=off to disable)...

        Then type edd=off to add this option to the command line.

      5. Press Enter to start Tails.

      6. Hopefully, new error messages now appear when starting Tails. You can send them to our help desk by email, for example by taking a picture of the last screen and error messages.

    Welcome to Tails!

  2. In the Welcome Screen, select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section. Click Start Tails.

  3. Dopo 15–30 secondi, ti apparirà il Desktop di Tails.

    Desktop di Tails

Install Tails

Upgrade your Tails

In this step, you will upgrade your Tails from the other intermediary Tails using Tails Installer.

Second USB stick plugged on the right
  1. Plug the new your Tails USB stick in the computer.

    All the data on this USB stick will be lost.

  2. Choose Applications ▸ Tails ▸ Tails Installer to start Tails Installer.

    Tails Installer: 'Clone the current Tails' Tails Installer: 'Clone the current Tails'

    Tails installed on USB stick on the right
  3. Choose the new your USB stick in the Target USB stick drop-down list.

  4. To start the installation, click on the Install button. upgrade, click on the Upgrade button.

    The Persistent Storage of your Tails USB stick will be preserved.

    The Persistent Storage of the other Tails will not be copied.

  5. Leggi il messaggio di avviso nella finestra di conferma. Clicca su Yes per confermare.

    The installation upgrade takes a few minutes.

    La barra di avanzamento comunemente rimane bloccata alcuni secondi intorno al 95% mentre sta sincronizzando i dati sul disco, non ti preoccupare.

  6. After the installation finishes, close Tails Installer.

Hai aggiornato Tails. Ora puoi spegnere e riavviare utilizzando la tua Tails che è sulla chiave USB.

Grazie di stare al sicuro con Tails!