These instructions require:

  • macOS 10.10 (Yosemite) or later

Avviare in macOS.

Install Tails using Etcher

Install Etcher

  1. Click on the following link to download Etcher:

    Download Etcher for macOS

  2. Open the Etcher download (DMG disk image).

  3. To install Etcher, drag the Etcher icon onto the Applications icon.

  4. Close the installation window of Etcher.

    Optionally, eject the Etcher disk image from the desktop.

Instead of installing Etcher, you can also install Tails using dd on the command line.

  1. Make sure that your USB stick is unplugged.

  2. Open Terminal from Applications ▸ Utilities ▸ Terminal.app.

  3. Esegui il comando seguente:

    diskutil list

    It returns a list of the storage devices on the system. For example:

    /dev/disk0 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *500.1 GB disk0 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_HFS MacDrive 250.0 GB disk0s2 3: EFI 134.1 GB disk0s3 4: Microsoft Basic Data BOOTCAMP 115.5 GB disk0s4

  4. Plug your USB stick in the computer.

  5. Esegui di nuovo lo stesso comand:

    diskutil list

    Your USB stick appears as a new device in the list. Check that its size corresponds to the size of your USB stick.

    /dev/disk0 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme ∗500.1 GB disk0 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_HFS MacDrive 250.0 GB disk0s2 3: EFI 134.1 GB disk0s3 4: Microsoft Basic Data BOOTCAMP 115.5 GB disk0s4 /dev/disk1 #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: FDisk_partition_scheme *8.0 GB disk1 1: Apple_HFS Untitled 1 8.0 GB disk1s1

  6. Prendi nota del nome del dispositivo della tua chiave USB. In questo esempio, la chiave USB è di 8.0 GB e il suo nome dispositivo è /dev/disk1. Per te potranno essere differenti.

    If you are unsure about the device name, you should stop proceeding or you risk overwriting any hard disk on the system.

  7. Execute the following commands to copy the USB image that you downloaded earlier to the USB stick.

    Replace:

    • tails.img with the path to the USB image

      If you are unsure about the path to the USB image, you can insert the correct path by dragging and dropping the icon of the USB image from Finder onto Terminal.

    • device with the device name found in step 6

      You can try adding r before disk to make the installation faster.

    diskutil unmountDisk device

    dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16m && sync

    You should get something like this:

    dd if=/Users/me/tails-amd64-3.12.img of=/dev/rdisk9 bs=16m && sync

    If no error message is returned, Tails is being copied on the USB stick. The copy takes some time, generally a few minutes.

    If you get a Permission denied error, try adding sudo at the beginning of the command:

    sudo dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16m && sync

    If you get an invalid number ‘16m’ error, try using 16M instead:

    dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M && sync

    The installation is complete once the command prompt reappeared.

Install Tails

USB stick plugged in the computer
  1. Plug in the USB stick on which you want to install Tails.

    All the data on this USB stick will be lost.

  2. Open Finder and choose Etcher in Applications.

    Open the Etcher download.

    At the security warning, confirm that you want to open Etcher.

    Etcher starts.

  3. Click the Select image button.

    Choose the USB image that you downloaded earlier.

    Make sure that the USB image has an .img file extension.

    If the image has an .iso file extension, it is not the correct image. Please go back to the download step for installing from Windowsdownload step for installing from macOS.

  4. Etcher should automatically select your USB stick. Otherwise, click the Change link to choose a different USB stick.

    USB image installed on USB stick
  5. Click Flash.

    Enter your password if you are asked for it.

    The installation takes a few minutes.

    After installing Tails, Etcher verifies the installation.

  6. Close Etcher.

    If a notification about the USB stick not being readable appears, click Eject to eject the USB stick.

Tails USB stick

Congratulations, you have installed Tails on your USB stick!

You will now restart your computer on this USB stick. It can be a bit complicated, so good luck! But it might not work on your Mac model, so good luck!

Apri queste istruzioni su un altro dispositivo

Nei prossimi passaggi, dovrai spegnere il computer. Per poter essere in grado di seguire le istruzioni, ti raccomandiamo di fare una delle seguenti cose:

  • Apri questa pagina sul tuo smartphone, tablet o altro computer (consigliato).

  • Stampa il resto delle istruzioni su carta.

  • Prendi nota dell'indirizzo di questa pagina per poterci tornare più tardi:

    https://tails.boum.org/install/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/win/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/expert/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/linux/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/tails?back=1

Restart on the intermediary Tails

Restart on the other Tails

Restart on Tails

USB stick plugged on the left Computer restarted on USB stick Computer restarted on USB stick on the left USB stick unplugged on the right and computer restarted on USB stick on the left
  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Shut down the computer.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install upgrade from.

    Unplug your Tails USB stick while leaving the intermediary USB stick plugged in.

  2. Riaccendi il computer.

    Premi immediatamente e non lasciare il tasto Opzione (Alt key) finché una lista di possibili dischi d'avvio appare.

    'Option' or 'alt' key in the bottom left of Mac keyboard

    Scegli la chiave USB e premi Invio. La chiave USB appare come un hard dis esterno e potrebbe essere eticettataEFI Boot o Windows come nello screenshot seguente:

    Schermo con il logo di un hard disk interno etichettato 'macintosh HD' e un hard disk esterno etichettato 'Windows' (selezionato)

  3. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader Menu appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Most computers do not start on Tails by default. If it does you are lucky. Otherwise, if the computer starts on Debian, Ubuntu, or Linux Mint Windows, Linux, Windows or Linux, refer to the troubleshooting section about Tails not starting at all.

    Troubleshooting: Tails does not start at all

    The following section applies if the Boot Loader Menu does not appear when starting on a USB stick.

    It is quite common for computers not to start automatically on a USB stick with Tails installed. Here are some troubleshooting techniques. You should try them one after the other.

    Getting to the boot menu

    On most computers, you can press a boot menu key to display a list of possible devices to start from. The following instructions explain how to display the boot menu and start on the USB stick. The following screenshot is an example of such boot menu:

    1. Shut down the computer.

    2. Make sure that the first USB stick is plugged in the computer.

    3. Identify the potential boot menu keys for the computer depending on the computer manufacturer in the following list:

      ManufacturerKey
      AcerEsc, F12, F9
      AsusEsc, F8
      DellF12
      FujitsuF12, Esc
      HPEsc, F9
      LenovoF12, Novo, F8, F10
      SamsungEsc, F12, F2
      SonyF11, Esc, F10
      ToshibaF12
      others…F12, Esc
    4. Riaccendi il computer.

      Immediately press several times the first potential boot menu key identified in step 3.

      1. If a boot menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick and press Enter.

      2. If the computer starts on another operating system, then:

        1. Shut down the computer.

        2. Press-and-hold the potential boot menu key identified in step 3.

        3. Switch on the computer again while holding the potential boot menu key pressed.

          1. If a boot menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick and press Enter.

          2. If the computer starts on another operating system or returns an error message, then shut down the computer again and repeat step 4 for all the potential boot menu keys identified in step 3.

    If none of the potential boot menu keys identified in step 3 work or if the USB stick does not appear in the list, then try the second troubleshooting technique described below.

    Check our list of known issues

    Similar problems might have been reported already for your model of computer in our list of known issues.

    Edit the BIOS settings

    You might need to edit the BIOS settings of the computer.

    Search for the user manual of the computer on the website of its manufacturer to learn how to edit the BIOS settings:

    In the BIOS settings, try to apply the following changes one by one and restart the computer after each change. Some changes might not apply to certain computer models.

    Take note of the changes that you apply to the BIOS settings, to be able to revert them if they prevent the computer to start on its usual operating system.

    1. Edit the Boot Order. Depending on the computer model you might see an entry for removable devices or USB media. Move this entry to the top of the list to force the computer to try to start from the first USB stick before starting from the internal hard disk.

    2. Disable Fast boot.

    3. If the computer is configured to start with legacy BIOS, try to configure it to start with UEFI. Else, if the computer is configured to start with UEFI, try to configure it to start with legacy BIOS. To do so, try any of the following options if available:

    4. Try to upgrade the BIOS to the latest version provided by the manufacturer.

    Report the problem to our support team

    If none of these options work, we are sorry but you might not be able to use Tails on this computer.

    Please, send an email to our support team, including the following information:

    1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

    2. How did you verify the USB image?

    3. Which is the brand and model of the computer?

    4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

    5. Which program did you use to install your USB stick:

      • Etcher,
      • GNOME Disks,
      • Tails Installer, or
      • dd on the command line?

      Note that these are the only supported installation methods.

    6. Have you been able to start Tails successfully on this computer before, from another USB stick or DVD, or with another version of Tails? If so, which ones?

    7. Does the same USB stick start successfully on other computers?

    Black screen with Tails artwork. Boot Loader Menu with two options 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

    If your computer fails to start on the USB stick, then it might currently be impossible to start Tails on your Mac model.

  4. Dopo 30–60 secondi, un altro schermo chiamato Tails Greeter compare.

    If the computer display the error message Error starting GDM with your graphics card, refer to our list of known issues with graphics cards.

    If the computer stops responding or displays other error messages before getting to Tails Greeter, refer to the troubleshooting section about Tails not starting entirely.

    Risoluzione dei problemi

    Tails non si avvia

    The following section applies if the Boot Loader Menu appears but not Tails Greeter when starting Tails.

    1. Riavvia il computer sulla prima chiave USB.

    2. In the Boot Loader Menu, choose the Troubleshooting Mode which might work better on some computers.

    3. If the Troubleshooting Mode does not work better, restart the computer again on the first USB stick.

    4. In the Boot Loader Menu, press TAB. A command line with a list of boot options appears at the bottom of the screen.

      Black screen with Tails artwork and list of boot options

    5. Premi il tasto Backspace molte volte per rimuovere l'opzione quiet dalla linea di comando.

    6. If Tails previously failed to start and displayed the Probing EDD (edd=off to disable)... error, then type edd=off to add this option to the command line.

    7. Digita 'debug nosplash' per aggiungere queste opzioni alla riga di comando.

    8. Per avviare Tails, premi Invio.

    9. Dei messaggi d'errore dovrebbero ora apparire all'avvio di Tails. Puoi inviarli al nostro team di supporto via email, per esempio facendo una foto all'ultima schermata e messaggio d'errore.

    10. Se il messaggio d'errore è /bin/sh: can't access tty; job control turned off seguito da (initramfs), prova a rimuovere l'opzione live-media=removable dalla riga di comando d'avvio.

      Se rimuovere live-media=removable ti consente di avviare Tails, per favore riporta il problema al nostro team di supporto. Questo contribuisce a migliorare la lista delle chiavi USB problematiche. Quindi prova a installare da un'altra chiave USB.

    Rimuovere l'opzione live-media=removable potrebbe essere pericoloso. Se un avverario ha avuto accesso al computer e ha installato una Tails malevola su un hard disk interno, il computer potrebbe avviarsi sulla Tails malevola invece che sulla chiave USB.

    Tails Greeter: 'Welcome to Tails!'

  5. In Tails Greeter, select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section. Click Start Tails.

  6. Dopo 15–30 secondi, ti apparirà il Desktop di Tails.

    Tails desktop

Test your Wi-Fi

Problems with Wi-Fi are unfortunately quite common in Tails and Linux in general. To test if your Wi-Fi interface works in Tails:

  1. Open the system menu in the top-right corner:

  2. Choose Wi-Fi Not Connected and then Select Network.

  3. After establishing a connection to a network:

    • If you can already access the Internet, Tor is automatically started.

    • If you need to log in to a captive portal before being granted access to the Internet, see our documentation about logging in to captive portals.

If your Wi-Fi interface is not working, either:

  • There is no Wi-Fi option in the system menu:

  • The interface is disabled when starting Tails or when plugging in your USB Wi-Fi adapter:

    Notification about network card being disabled

    In this case, you can disable MAC spoofing to get your Wi-Fi interface to work in Tails. Disabling MAC spoofing has security implications, so read carefully our documentation about MAC spoofing before doing so.

To connect to the Internet, you can try to either:

  • Use an Ethernet cable instead of Wi-Fi if possible. Wired interfaces work much more reliably than Wi-Fi in Tails.

  • Buy a USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails:

    VendorModelSizeSpeedPriceBuy offlineBuy online
    EdimaxN150Nano150 Mbit/s$10NoAmazon
    Panda WirelessUltraNano150 Mbit/s$12NoAmazon
    Panda WirelessPAU05Small300 Mbit/s$14NoAmazon

    If you find another USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails, please let us know. You can write to tails-testers@boum.org (public mailing list) or tails@boum.org (private email).

Yay, you managed to start your new Tails on your computer!

If you want to save some of your documents and configuration in an encrypted storage on your new Tails USB stick, follow our instructions until the end. Otherwise, have a look at our final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations.

Crea un volume persistente cifrato (opzionale)

You can optionally create an encrypted persistent storage in the remaining free space on your new Tails USB stick to store any of the following:

  • Personal files
  • Some settings
  • Additional software
  • Encryption keys

I dati salvati nel volume cifrato persistente:

  • Rimarranno disponibili anche sulle differenti sessioni di lavoro.
  • E' cifrato usando una parola chiave di tua scelta.

La partizione cifrata persistente non è nascosta.Un attaccante in possesso della chiavetta USB può comunque sapere che c'è uno spazio dati cifrato e persistente. Prendi in considerazione che potresti essere forzato o ingannato per rivelare la tua chiave segreta.

It is possible to open the encrypted persistent storage from other operating systems. But, doing so might compromise the security provided by Tails.

For example, image thumbnails might be created and saved by the other operating system. Or, the contents of files might be indexed by the other operating system.

Other operating systems should probably not be trusted to handle sensitive information or leave no trace.

Creare lo spazio dati persistente

  1. Scegli Applicazioni ▸ Tails ▸ Configure persistent volume.

  2. Specifica una parola segreta di tua scelta in entrambi i campi Passphrase and Verify Passphrase.

    Ti raccomandiamo di scegliere una parola segreta composta da 5 a 7 parole casuali. Vedi come si fa.

  3. Clicca sul bottone Crea.

  4. Aspetta che il processo di creazione abbia finito.

  5. L'assistente ti mostra una lista delle funzionalità applicabili alla memoria persistente. Ciascuna scelta corrisponde ad un set di file o di impostazioni che saranno salvate nello spazio dati cifrato e persistente.

    Noi ti raccomandiamo di attivare soltanto l'opzione Dati personali per il momento. Potrai attivare le altre funzionalità più tardi quando ti serviranno.

  6. Clicca Salva.

Riavvia e attiva la partizione persistente

  1. Shut down the computer and restart on your new Tails USB stick.

  2. In Tails Greeter:

    Tails Greeter: 'Welcome to Tails!'

    • Select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section.
    • In the Encrypted Persistent Storage section, enter your passphrase and click Unlock to activate the encrypted persistent storage for the current working session.
    • Click Start Tails.
  3. Dopo 15–30 secondi, ti apparirà il Desktop di Tails.

  4. Ora puoi salvare i tuoi file riservati e i documenti su cui lavori nella cartellaPersistente. Per aprire la cartella della Persistenza scegli Posizioni ▸ Persistent.

Tails USB stick with persistent storage

You now have a complete Tails, congrats!

Raccomandazioni finali

Tails non ti protegge da tutto! Dai una occhiata ai nostri avvertimenti.

Se incontri qualche problema, usa il linkSegnala un errore sulla Scrivania (desktop) di Tails o visita le nostre pagine di supporto.

Speriamo che ti divertirai usando Tails :)