Empezar en Linux.

Instalar Tails usando GNOME Disks

  1. Instalar GNOME Disks.

    • Si utilizas el entorno de escritorio GNOME, Discos de GNOME debería venir instalado por defecto.

    • Si no, instala el paquete gnome-disk-utility utilizando el método habitual de instalación para tu distribución.

      También puedes instalar Tails usando el comando dd desde cualquier distribución de Linux como se detalla en nuestras instrucciones para instalar desde Debian usando la línea de comandos.

  2. Start GNOME Disks (also called Disks).

    For example, you can press the Super key, then type disk, then choose Disks.
    Choose Applications ▸ Utilities ▸ Disks.

    USB stick plugged in the computer USB stick plugged on the left
  3. Plug in the intermediary USB stick on which you want to install Tails.

    Se perderá toda la información en esta memoria USB.

    A new drive appears in the left pane. Click on it.

    USB image installed on USB stick USB image installed on USB stick on the left
  4. Click on the Menu button in the titlebar and choose Restore Disk Image….

    If your version of GNOME Disks is old it might have a System button instead. Click on the System button and choose Restore Disk Image….

  5. In the Restore Disk Image dialog, click on the file selector button.

    Choose the USB image that you downloaded earlier.

    Make sure that the USB image has an .img file extension.

    If the image has an .iso file extension, it is not the correct image. Please go back to the download step for installing from Linuxdownload step for upgrading from Tails.

  6. Click on the Start Restoring… button.

  7. In the confirmation dialog click Restore.

    Depending on your Linux distribution, you might be asked for your administration password.

    The installation takes a few minutes.

  8. After the installation is finished, click on the Eject button.

Memoria USB Tails

¡Felicitaciones, haz instalado Tails en tu memoria USB!

Ahora vas a reiniciar tu computadora en esta memoria USB. Puede ser un poco complicado así que ¡buena suerte! Pero puede no funcionar en tu modelo de Mac así que ¡buena suerte!

Lee estas instrucciones en otro dispositivo

En el siguiente paso, apagarás la computadora. Para poder seguir el resto de las instrucciones después, te recomendamos que:

  • Abras esta página en tu celular, tableta o alguna otra computadora (recomendado).

  • Imprimas el resto de las instrucciones.

  • Tomes nota de la dirección URL de esta página para poder volver a ella luego:

    https://tails.boum.org/install/clone/index.es.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/win/usb/index.es.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/usb/index.es.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/clone/index.es.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/expert/usb/index.es.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/linux/usb/index.es.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/clone/index.es.html?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/tails/index.es.html?back=1

Reinicia en el Tails intermedio

Reinicia en otro Tails

Reinicia en Tails

Memoria USB conectada en la izquierda Computadora reiniciada en la memoria USB Computadora reiniciada en la memoria USB de la izquierda Memoria USB desconectada en la derecha y computadora reiniciada en la memoria USB en la izquierda

Make the computer start on the USB stick

This step is the most complicated one as it depends a lot on the model of the computer:

  • On most computers, our basic instructions to get to the boot menu work fine.
  • On some computers, you might have to do more advanced techniques, like editing the BIOS settings.
  • On a few computers, it might currently be impossible to start Tails. But, it is very hard to know without trying.

The goal is to reach the Boot Loader Menu of Tails:

Black screen with Tails artwork. Boot Loader Menu with two options 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

Getting to the boot menu

On most computers, you can press a boot menu key to display a list of possible devices to start from. The following instructions explain how to display the boot menu and start on the USB stick. The following screenshot is an example of a boot menu:

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Shut down the computer.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install upgrade from.

    Unplug your Tails USB stick while leaving the intermediary USB stick plugged in.

  2. Identify the possible boot menu keys for the computer depending on the computer manufacturer in the following list:

    ManufacturerKey
    AcerEsc, F12, F9
    AsusEsc, F8
    DellF12
    FujitsuF12, Esc
    HPEsc, F9
    LenovoF12, Novo, F8, F10
    SamsungEsc, F12, F2
    SonyF11, Esc, F10
    ToshibaF12
    others…F12, Esc

    On many computers, a message is displayed very briefly when switching on that also explains how to get to the boot menu or edit the BIOS settings.

  3. Switch on the computer and immediately press several times the first possible boot menu key identified in step 2.

  4. If the computer starts on another operating system or returns an error message, shut down the computer again and repeat step 3 for all the possible boot menu keys identified in step 2.

    If a boot menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick and press Enter.

    If the boot menu key that works on your computer is a different one than the first in the list, please let us know. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

This animation explains how to use the boot menu key:

Check our list of known issues

Similar problems might have been reported already for your model of computer in our list of known issues.

Edit the BIOS settings

If none of the possible boot menu keys from the previous technique work, or if the USB stick does not appear in the boot menu, you might need to edit your BIOS settings.

Search for the user manual of the computer on the website of its manufacturer to learn how to edit the BIOS settings:

In the BIOS settings, try to apply the following changes one by one and restart the computer after each change. Some changes might not apply to certain computer models.

Take note of the changes that you apply to the BIOS settings. That way, you can revert the changes if they prevent the computer from starting on its usual operating system.

  1. Edit the Boot Order. Depending on the computer model you might see an entry for removable devices or USB media. Move this entry to the top of the list to force the computer to try to start from the USB stick before starting from the internal hard disk.

  2. Disable Fast boot.

  3. If the computer is configured to start with legacy BIOS, try to configure it to start with UEFI. Else, if the computer is configured to start with UEFI, try to configure it to start with legacy BIOS. To do so, try any of the following options if available:

  4. Try to upgrade the BIOS to the latest version provided by the manufacturer.

If none of these options work, we are sorry but you might not be able to use Tails on this computer. Feel free to report the problem to our help desk.

Reporting the problem to our help desk

Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

  1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

  2. How did you verify the USB image?

  3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

  4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

  5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

  6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

  7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

We answer requests in:

  • English
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Italian

Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install from.

  2. Switch on the computer and immediately press-and-hold the Option key (Alt key) until a list of possible startup disks appears.

    'Option' or 'alt' key in the bottom left of Mac keyboard

  3. Choose the USB stick and press Enter. The USB stick appears as an external hard disk and might be labeled EFI Boot or Windows like in the following screenshot:

    Screen with the logo of an internal hard disk labeled 'Macintosh HD' and an external hard disk labelled 'Windows' (selected)

    If the USB stick does not appear in the list of possible startup disks:

    1. Make sure that you have verified your download of Tails.
    2. Try installing again on the same USB stick.
    3. Try installing on a different USB stick.
    4. Try using the same USB stick to start on a different computer.
      If the same USB stick works on a different computer, please report the problem to our help desk.
  4. Reporting the problem to our help desk

    Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

    1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

    2. How did you verify the USB image?

    3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

    4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

    5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

    6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

    7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

    We answer requests in:

    • English
    • French
    • Spanish
    • Italian

    Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

  5. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader Menu appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen with Tails artwork. Boot Loader Menu with two options 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

If your computer displays the Boot Loader Menu but then fails to start on the USB stick, it might currently be impossible to start Tails on your Mac model.

Please report the problem to our help desk.

Reporting the problem to our help desk

Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

  1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

  2. How did you verify the USB image?

  3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

  4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

  5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

  6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

  7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

We answer requests in:

  • English
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Italian

Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

Tails Greeter

  1. Uno o dos minutos después del Menú de cargador de arranque, aparece otra pantalla titulada Tails Greeter.

    Si la computadora muestra el mensaje de error Error iniciando GDM con tu tarjeta gráfica, revisa nuestra lista de problemas conocidos con tarjetas gráficas.

    If the computer stops responding or displays other error messages before getting to Tails Greeter, refer to the troubleshooting section about Tails not starting entirely.

    Resolución de problemas

    Tails no arranca completamente

    La siguiente sección aplica si el Menú de cargador de arranque aparece, pero no aparece el Tails Greeter al arracar Tails.

    1. Reinicia la computadora en el primer dispositivo USB.

    2. En el Menú del cargador de arranque, escoge el Troubleshooting Mode que puede funcionar mejor en algunos computadores.

    3. Si el Troubleshooting Mode no funciona mejor, reinicia el computador de nuevo desde la primera memoria USB.

    4. En el Menú de cargador de arranque, oprime TAB. Una línea de comando con una lista de opciones de arranque aparecerá abajo de la pantalla.

      Pantalla negra con el logo de Tails y una lista de opciones de arranque

      1. Oprime la tecla Tecla de borrarvarias veces para quitar las opciones de la linea de comando que no apliquen.

      2. Si Tails falló previamente al iniciar y mostró el error Probing EDD (edd=off to disable)..., escribe edd=off para agregar esta opción a la línea de comandos.

      3. Escribe debug nosplash para agregar estas opciones a la línea de comandos.

      4. Para arrancar Tails oprime la tecla Enter / de retorno.

      5. Mensajes de error deberían aparecer ahora al arrancar Tails. Puedes enviarlos a nuestro equipo de ayuda por correo , por ejemplo tomando una foto a la última pantalla y al mensaje de error.

    Tails Greeter: 'Welcome to Tails!'

  • En el Tails Greeter elige tu idioma y la configuración de tu teclado en la sección Language & Region y presiona Start Tails.

  • Luego de 15–30 segundos, el escritorio de Tails aparecerá.

    EscritorioTails

  • Prueba tu Wi-Fi

    Problems with Wi-Fi are unfortunately quite common in Tails and Linux in general. To test if your Wi-Fi interface works in Tails:

    1. Abre el menú del sistema en la esquina superior derecha:

    2. Choose Wi-Fi Not Connected and then Select Network.

    3. Luego de establecer una conexión a la red:

      • Si ya puedes acceder a Internet, Tor arranca automáticamente.

      • If you need to log in to a captive portal before being granted access to the Internet, see our documentation about logging in to captive portals.

    If your Wi-Fi interface is not working, either:

    • There is no Wi-Fi option in the system menu:

    • The interface is disabled when starting Tails or when plugging in your USB Wi-Fi adapter:

      Notification about network card being disabled

      In this case, you can disable MAC spoofing to get your Wi-Fi interface to work in Tails. Disabling MAC spoofing has security implications, so read carefully our documentation about MAC spoofing before doing so.

    To connect to the Internet, you can try to either:

    • Use an Ethernet cable instead of Wi-Fi if possible. Wired interfaces work much more reliably than Wi-Fi in Tails.

    • Buy a USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails:

      VendorModelSizeSpeedPriceBuy offlineBuy online
      EdimaxEW-7811UnNano150 Mbit/s$10NoAmazon
      Panda WirelessUltraNano150 Mbit/s$12NoAmazon
      Panda WirelessPAU05Small300 Mbit/s$14NoAmazon

      If you find another USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails, please let us know. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

    Yay, you managed to start your new Tails on your computer!

    If you want to save some of your documents and configuration in an encrypted storage on your new Tails USB stick, follow our instructions until the end. Otherwise, have a look at our final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations.

    Crea una unidad de almacenamiento persistente encriptado (opcional)

    You can optionally create an encrypted persistent storage in the remaining free space on your new Tails USB stick to store any of the following:

    • Archivos personales
    • Algunas configuraciones
    • Software adicional
    • Llaves de cifrado

    Los datos en el almacenamiento persistente cifrado:

    • Permanece disponible entre sesiones de trabajo separadas.
    • Esta cifrado usando una contraseña de tu elección.

    El almacenamiento persistente cifrado no está escondido. Un atacante en posesión de la memoria USB puede saber si contiene un almacenamiento persistente cifrado. Ten en cuenta que puedes ser forzado o engañado a revelar la contraseña.

    Es posible abrir el almacenamiento persistente cifrado desde otros sistemas operativos, pero podría romper tu seguridad.

    Por ejemplo, las imágenes en miniatura podrían ser creadas y guardadas por el otro sistema operativo. O los contenidos de los archivos podrían ser indexados por el otro sistema operativo.

    Otros sistemas operativos probablemente no deberían ser confiados con el manejo de información sensible o sin dejar rastros.

    Crea el almacenamiento persistente

    1. Selecciona Aplicaciones ▸ Tails ▸ Configurar volumen persistente.

    2. Especifica una contraseña de tu elección en las cajas de texto Contraseña y en Verificar Contraseña.

      Recomendamos elegir contraseñas largas compuestas de cinco a siete palabras aleatorias. Aprende más.

    3. Haz click en el botón Crear.

    4. Espera a que finalice la creación.

    5. El asistente muestra una lista de las posibles características de persistencia. Cada característica corresponde con un conjunto de archivos o ajustes que se guardaran en el almacenamiento persistente cifrado.

      Te recomendamos activar la función de persistencia de Datos Personales solo por el momento. Puedes activar más funciones luego de acuerdo a tus necesidades.

    6. Haz click Guardar.

    Reinicia y activa el almacenamiento persistente

    1. Shut down the computer and restart on your new Tails USB stick.

    2. En el Tails Greeter:

      Tails Greeter: 'Welcome to Tails!''

      • Elige tu idioma y disposición de teclado en la sección Language & Region.
      • En la sección Encrypted Persistent Storage, escribe tu frase contraseña y haz click en Unlock para activar el almacenamiento persistente cifrado para la sesión actual.
      • Haz click en Start Tails.
    3. Luego de 15–30 segundos, el escritorio de Tails aparecerá.

    4. Ahora puedes guardar tus archivos personales y documentos de trabajo en la carpeta Persistente. Para abrir la carpeta Persistente elige Lugares ▸ Persistent.

    Tails USB stick with persistent storage

    You now have a complete Tails, congrats!

    Recomendaciones finales

    ¡Tails no te protege de todo! Échale un vistazo a nuestras advertencias.

    Si tienes algún problema, usa el lanzador Reportar un error en el escritorio de Tails o visita nuestras páginas de soporte.

    Esperamos que disfrutes usando Tails :)