Starten Sie unter Debian, Ubuntu oder Linux Mint.

Verifizieren Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails

If you already certified the Tails signing key with your own key, you can skip this step and start downloading and verifying the USB image.

In this step, you will download and verify the Tails signing key which is the OpenPGP key that is used to cryptographically sign the Tails USB image.

Um diesen Anweisungen folgen zu können, brauchen Sie Ihren eigenen OpenPGP-Schlüssel.

Um zu lernen, wie Sie sich einen OpenPGP-Schlüssel erstellen, sehen Sie auf OpenPGP-Schlüssel verwalten von Riseup nach.

Diese Methode zur Verifizierung benutzt das OpenPGP Web of Trust und die von offiziellen Debian-Entwicklern und Debian-Entwicklerinnen vorgenommenen Zertifizierungen des Signaturschlüssels von Tails. Erfahren Sie mehr über das OpenPGP Web of Trust.

  1. Importieren Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails in Ihren GnuPG-Schlüsselbund:

    wget https://tails.boum.org/tails-signing.key
    gpg --import < tails-signing.key
    
  2. Installieren Sie den Debian Schlüsselbund. Er enthält die OpenPGP-Schlüssel aller Entwickler und Entwicklerinnen von Debian:

    sudo apt install debian-keyring
    
  3. Importieren Sie den OpenPGP-Schlüssel von Stefano Zacchiroli, einem ehemaligen Vorsitzenden des Debian-Projekts, in Ihren Schlüsselbund:

    gpg --keyring=/usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg --export zack@upsilon.cc | gpg --import
    
  4. Verifizieren Sie die Zertifizierungen, die den Tails-Signaturschlüssel zertifizieren:

    gpg --keyid-format 0xlong --check-sigs A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
    

    Halten Sie in der Ausgabe dieses Befehls nach folgender Zeile Ausschau:

    sig! 0x9C31503C6D866396 2015-02-03  Stefano Zacchiroli <zack@upsilon.cc>
    

    Hier bedeutet sig! (mit einem Ausrufezeichen), dass Stefano Zacchiroli den Signaturschlüssel von Tails mit seinem Schlüssel verifiziert und zertifiziert hat.

    Es ist auch möglich, von anderen Personen durchgeführte Zertifizierungen zu verifizieren. Namen und E-Mail-Adressen erscheinen in der Liste der Zertifizierung, wenn Sie deren Schlüssel in Ihrem Schlüsselbund haben.

    Falls die Verifizierung der Zertifizierung fehlschlägt, haben Sie möglicherweise eine bösartige Variante des Signaturschlüssels von Tails heruntergeladen oder unsere Anweisungen sind vielleicht nicht mehr aktuell sein. Bitte treten Sie in Kontakt mit uns.

    Die Zeile 175 signatures not checked due to missing keys oder ähnlich bezieht sich auf die Zertifizierungen (auch Signaturen gennant), die durch andere Schlüssel erstellt wurden und sich nicht in Ihrem Schlüsselbund befinden. Dies ist kein Problem.

  5. Zertifizieren Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails mit Ihrem eigenen Schlüssel:

    a. Um eine nicht-exportierbare Zertifizierung zu erstellen, die niemals mit anderen geteilt wird:

       gpg --lsign-key A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
    

    b. Um eine exportierbare Zertifizierung des Signaturschlüssels von Tails zu erstellen und diese auf den öffentlichen Schlüsselservern zu veröffentlichen:

       gpg --sign-key A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
       gpg --send-keys A490D0F4D311A4153E2BB7CADBB802B258ACD84F
    

    Dies erlaubt es Personen, die Ihren Schlüssel verifiziert haben, Ihre Zertifizierung zu verifizieren und als Konsequenz daraus mehr Vertrauen in den Signaturschlüssel von Tails aufzubauen.

Download and verify the USB image

In this step, you will download the latest Tails USB image and verify it using the Tails signing key.

  1. Download the USB image:

    wget --continue http://dl.amnesia.boum.org/tails/stable/tails-amd64-4.1/tails-amd64-4.1.img

  2. Download the signature of the USB image:

    wget https://tails.boum.org/torrents/files/tails-amd64-4.1.img.sig

  3. Verify that the USB image is signed by the Tails signing key:

    TZ=UTC gpg --no-options --keyid-format long --verify tails-amd64-4.1.img.sig tails-amd64-4.1.img

    Die Ausgabe des Befehls sollte folgendermaßen sein:

    gpg: Signature made Mon Dec  2 23:12:54 2019 UTC
    gpg:                using RSA key FE029CB4AAD4788E1D7828E8A8B0F4E45B1B50E2
    gpg: Good signature from "Tails developers <tails@boum.org>" [full]
    gpg:                 aka "Tails developers (offline long-term identity key) <tails@boum.org>" [full]

    Stellen Sie in der Ausgabe sicher, dass:

    • Das Datum der Signatur das gleiche ist.
    • Die Signatur als Good signature markiert ist, da Sie den Signaturschlüssel von Tails mit Ihrem eigenen Schlüssel zertifiziert haben.

Install Tails using dd

  1. Make sure that the USB stick on which you want to install Tails is unplugged.

  2. Execute the following command:

    ls -1 /dev/sd?

    It returns a list of the storage devices on the system. For example:

    /dev/sda

  3. Plug in the USB stick on which you want to install Tails.

    All the data on this USB stick will be lost.

  4. Execute again the same command:

    ls -1 /dev/sd?

    Your USB stick appears as a new device in the list.

    /dev/sda /dev/sdb

  5. Take note of the device name of your USB stick.

    In this example, the device name of the USB stick is /dev/sdb. Yours might be different.

    If you are unsure about the device name, you should stop proceeding or you risk overwriting any hard disk on the system.

  6. Execute the following commands to copy the USB image that you downloaded earlier to the USB stick.

    Replace:

    • tails.img with the path to the USB image

    • device with the device name found in step 5

    dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M && sync

    You should get something like this:

    dd if=/home/user/tails-amd64-3.12.img of=/dev/sdb bs=16M && sync

    If no error message is returned, Tails is being copied on the USB stick. The copy takes some time, generally a few minutes.

    If you get a Permission denied error, try adding sudo at the beginning of the command:

    sudo dd if=tails.img of=device bs=16M && sync

    The installation is complete after the command prompt reappears.

Tails USB stick

Congratulations, you have installed Tails on your USB stick!

You will now restart your computer on this USB stick. It can be a bit complicated, so good luck! But it might not work on your Mac model, so good luck!

Öffnen Sie diese Anweisungen auf einem anderen Gerät

Im nächsten Schritt werden Sie den Computer herunterfahren. Um später die restlichen Anweisungen befolgen zu können, empfehlen wir entweder:

  • Diese Seite auf Ihrem Smartphone, Tablet oder einem anderen Computer (empfohlen) zu öffnen.

  • Die restlichen Anweisungen auszudrucken.

  • Die URL dieser Seite aufzuschreiben, damit Sie später wiederkommen können:

    https://tails.boum.org/install/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/win/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/mac/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/expert/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/install/linux/usb?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/clone?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/tails?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/win?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/mac?back=1 https://tails.boum.org/upgrade/linux?back=1

Restart on the intermediary Tails

Restart on the other Tails

Restart on Tails

USB stick plugged on the left Computer restarted on USB stick Computer restarted on USB stick on the left USB stick unplugged on the right and computer restarted on USB stick on the left

Make the computer start on the USB stick

This step is the most complicated one as it depends a lot on the model of the computer:

  • On most computers, our basic instructions to get to the boot menu work fine.
  • On some computers, you might have to do more advanced techniques, like editing the BIOS settings.
  • On a few computers, it might currently be impossible to start Tails. But, it is very hard to know without trying.

The goal is to reach the Boot Loader Menu of Tails:

Black screen with Tails artwork. Boot Loader Menu with two options 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

Getting to the boot menu

On most computers, you can press a boot menu key to display a list of possible devices to start from. The following instructions explain how to display the boot menu and start on the USB stick. The following screenshot is an example of a boot menu:

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Shut down the computer.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install upgrade from.

    Unplug your Tails USB stick while leaving the intermediary USB stick plugged in.

  2. Identify the possible boot menu keys for the computer depending on the computer manufacturer in the following list:

    ManufacturerKey
    AcerEsc, F12, F9
    AsusEsc, F8
    ClevoF7
    DellF12
    FujitsuF12, Esc
    HPF9, Esc
    LenovoF12, Novo, F8, F10
    SamsungEsc, F12, F2
    SonyF11, Esc, F10
    ToshibaF12
    others…F12, Esc

    On many computers, a message is displayed very briefly when switching on that also explains how to get to the boot menu or edit the BIOS settings.

  3. Switch on the computer and immediately press several times the first possible boot menu key identified in step 2.

  4. If the computer starts on another operating system or returns an error message, shut down the computer again and repeat step 3 for all the possible boot menu keys identified in step 2.

    If a boot menu with a list of devices appears, select your USB stick and press Enter.

    If the boot menu key that works on your computer is a different one than the first in the list, please let us know so we can improve the list. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

This animation explains how to use the boot menu key:

Check our list of known issues

Similar problems might have been reported already for your model of computer in our list of known issues.

Edit the BIOS settings

If none of the possible boot menu keys from the previous technique work, or if the USB stick does not appear in the boot menu, you might need to edit your BIOS settings.

Search for the user manual of the computer on the website of its manufacturer to learn how to edit the BIOS settings:

In the BIOS settings, try to apply the following changes one by one and restart the computer after each change. Some changes might not apply to certain computer models.

Take note of the changes that you apply to the BIOS settings. That way, you can revert the changes if they prevent the computer from starting on its usual operating system.

  1. Edit the Boot Order. Depending on the computer model you might see an entry for removable devices or USB media. Move this entry to the top of the list to force the computer to try to start from the USB stick before starting from the internal hard disk.

  2. Disable Fast boot.

  3. If the computer is configured to start with legacy BIOS, try to configure it to start with UEFI. Else, if the computer is configured to start with UEFI, try to configure it to start with legacy BIOS. To do so, try any of the following options if available:

  4. Try to upgrade the BIOS to the latest version provided by the manufacturer.

If none of these options work, we are sorry but you might not be able to use Tails on this computer. Feel free to report the problem to our help desk.

Reporting the problem to our help desk

Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

  1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

  2. How did you verify the USB image?

  3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

  4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

  5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

  6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

  7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

We answer requests in:

  • English
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Italian

Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

  1. Shut down the computer while leaving the USB stick plugged in.

    Plug in the other Tails USB stick that you want to install from.

  2. Switch on the computer and immediately press-and-hold the Option key (Alt key) until a list of possible startup disks appears.

    'Option' or 'alt' key in the bottom left of Mac keyboard

  3. Choose the USB stick and press Enter. The USB stick appears as an external hard disk and might be labeled EFI Boot or Windows like in the following screenshot:

    Screen with the logo of an internal hard disk labeled 'Macintosh HD' and an external hard disk labelled 'Windows' (selected)

    If the USB stick does not appear in the list of possible startup disks:

    1. Make sure that you have verified your download of Tails.
    2. Try installing again on the same USB stick.
    3. Try installing on a different USB stick.
    4. Try using the same USB stick to start on a different computer.
      If the same USB stick works on a different computer, please report the problem to our help desk.
  4. Reporting the problem to our help desk

    Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

    1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

    2. How did you verify the USB image?

    3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

    4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

    5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

    6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

    7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

    We answer requests in:

    • English
    • French
    • Spanish
    • Italian

    Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

  5. If the computer starts on Tails, the Boot Loader Menu appears and Tails starts automatically after 4 seconds.

    Black screen with Tails artwork. Boot Loader Menu with two options 'Tails' and 'Tails (Troubleshooting Mode)'.

If your computer displays the Boot Loader Menu but then fails to start on the USB stick, it might currently be impossible to start Tails on your Mac model.

Please report the problem to our help desk.

Reporting the problem to our help desk

Please send the following information to tails-support-private@boum.org:

  1. Which version of Tails are you trying to start?

  2. How did you verify the USB image?

  3. What is the brand and model of your computer?

  4. What exactly happens when trying to start? Report the complete error message that appears on the screen, if any.

  5. What program did you use to install your USB stick?

  6. Does the USB stick start successfully on other computers? If so, what are the brands and models of those computers?

  7. Have you been able to successfully start another version of Tails on this computer before? If so, which version?

We answer requests in:

  • English
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Italian

Requests not in English might take longer to answer. Imperfect English is welcome :)

Tails Greeter

  1. One to two minutes after the Boot Loader Menu, another screen called Tails Greeter appears.

    If the computer display the error message Error starting GDM with your graphics card, refer to our list of known issues with graphics cards.

    If the computer stops responding or displays other error messages before getting to Tails Greeter, refer to the troubleshooting section about Tails not starting entirely.

    Fehlerbehebung

    Tails startet nicht vollständig

    The following section applies if the Boot Loader Menu appears but not Tails Greeter when starting Tails.

    1. Starten Sie den Computer mit dem ersten USB-Stick neu.

    2. In the Boot Loader Menu, choose the Troubleshooting Mode which might work better on some computers.

    3. If the Troubleshooting Mode does not work better, restart the computer again on the first USB stick.

    4. In the Boot Loader Menu, press TAB. A command line with a list of boot options appears at the bottom of the screen.

      Black screen with Tails artwork and list of boot options

    5. Drücken Sie mehrmals die Backspace-Taste, um die Option quiet von der Kommandozeile zu entfernen.

    6. If Tails previously failed to start and displayed the Probing EDD (edd=off to disable)... error, then type edd=off to add this option to the command line.

    7. Geben Sie debug nosplash ein, um diese Optionen zur Kommandozeile hinzuzufügen.

    8. Drücken Sie Enter, um Tails neu zu starten.

    9. Hopefully, error messages now appear when starting Tails. You can send them to our help desk by email, for example by taking a picture of the last screen and error messages.

    Tails Greeter: 'Welcome to Tails!'

  2. In Tails Greeter, select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section. Click Start Tails.

  3. Nach 15–30 Sekunden erscheint der Desktop von Tails.

    Tails desktop

Test your Wi-Fi

Problems with Wi-Fi are unfortunately quite common in Tails and Linux in general. To test if your Wi-Fi interface works in Tails:

  1. Open the system menu in the top-right corner:

  2. Choose Wi-Fi Not Connected and then Select Network.

  3. After establishing a connection to a network:

    • If you can already access the Internet, Tor is automatically started.

    • If you need to log in to a captive portal before being granted access to the Internet, see our documentation about logging in to captive portals.

If your Wi-Fi interface is not working, either:

  • There is no Wi-Fi option in the system menu:

  • The interface is disabled when starting Tails or when plugging in your USB Wi-Fi adapter:

    Notification about network card being disabled

    In this case, you can disable MAC spoofing to get your Wi-Fi interface to work in Tails. Disabling MAC spoofing has security implications, so read carefully our documentation about MAC spoofing before doing so.

To connect to the Internet, you can try to either:

  • Use an Ethernet cable instead of Wi-Fi if possible. Wired interfaces work much more reliably than Wi-Fi in Tails.

  • Buy a USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails:

VendorModelSizeSpeedPriceBuy offlineBuy online
EdimaxEW-7811UnNano150 Mbit/s$10NoAmazon
Panda WirelessUltraNano150 Mbit/s$12NoAmazon
Panda WirelessPAU05Small300 Mbit/s$14NoAmazon

If you find another USB Wi-Fi adapter that works in Tails, please let us know. You can write to sajolida@pimienta.org (private email).

Yay, you managed to start your new Tails on your computer!

If you want to save some of your documents and configuration in an encrypted storage on your new Tails USB stick, follow our instructions until the end. Otherwise, have a look at our final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations. final recommendations.

Erstellen Sie einen verschlüsselten beständigen Speicherbereich (optional)

You can optionally create an encrypted persistent storage in the remaining free space on your new Tails USB stick to store any of the following:

  • eigene Dateien
  • Einstellungen
  • zusätzliche Programme
  • Encryption keys

Die Daten im verschlüsselten beständigen Speicherbereich:

  • Bleiben über mehrere Arbeitssitzungen hinweg verfügbar.
  • Werden mit einem Passwort Ihrer Wahl verschlüsselt.

Der verschlüsselte beständige Speicherbereich ist nicht versteckt. Angreifende im Besitz des USB-Sticks könnten wissen, dass ein verschlüsselter beständiger Speicherbereich vorhanden ist. Bedenken Sie, dass Sie gezwungen oder durch einen Trick dazu gebracht werden könnten, das Passwort herauszugeben.

It is possible to open the encrypted persistent storage from other operating systems. But, doing so might compromise the security provided by Tails.

For example, image thumbnails might be created and saved by the other operating system. Or, the contents of files might be indexed by the other operating system.

Other operating systems should probably not be trusted to handle sensitive information or leave no trace.

Erstellen Sie den beständigen Speicherbereich

  1. Wählen Sie Anwendungen ▸ Tails ▸ Configure persistent volume.

  2. Geben Sie sowohl in dem Textfeld Passphrase als auch Passphrase erneut eingeben eine Passphrase Ihrer Wahl an.

    Wir empfehlen, eine lange Passphrase zu wählen, die aus fünf bis sieben, zufälligen und langen Wörtern besteht. Lernen Sie mehr.

  3. Klicken Sie auf die Schaltfläche Erstellen.

  4. Warten Sie, bis das Erstellen abgeschlossen ist.

  5. Der Assistent zeigt eine Liste der möglichen Funktionen des beständigen Speicherbereichs an. Jede Funktion entspricht einer Sammlung von Dateien oder Einstellungen, die in dem verschlüsselten beständigen Speicherbereich gesichert werden.

    Wir empfehlen Ihnen fürs Erste, nur die Funktion für beständige Persönliche Dateien zu aktivieren. Sie können später weitere Funktionen entsprechend Ihrer Anforderungen aktivieren.

  6. Klicken Sie auf Speichern.

Starten Sie neu und aktivieren Sie den beständigen Speicherbereich

  1. Shut down the computer and restart on your new Tails USB stick.

  2. Im Tails Greeter:

    Tails Greeter: 'Welcome to Tails!'

    • Select your language and keyboard layout in the Language & Region section.
    • In the Encrypted Persistent Storage section, enter your passphrase and click Unlock to activate the encrypted persistent storage for the current working session.
    • Click Start Tails.
  3. Nach 15–30 Sekunden erscheint der Desktop von Tails.

  4. Sie können nun Ihre persönlichen Dateien und Arbeitsdokumente in dem Ordner Persistent sichern. Um den Ordner Persistent zu öffnen, wählen Sie Orte ▸ Persistent.

Tails USB stick with persistent storage

You now have a complete Tails, congrats!

Abschließende Empfehlungen

Tails beschützt Sie nicht vor allem! Werfen Sie einen Blick auf unsere Warnungen.

Wenn Sie Probleme haben, benutzen Sie die Schaltfläche Einen Fehler melden auf dem Desktop von Tails oder besuchen Sie unsere Support-Seiten.

Wir hoffen, dass Sie viel Freude beim Benutzen von Tails haben :)