Which additional software can I install in Tails?

Tails includes a limited set of applications but you can install more software.

This software is distributed in packages that are made available from the Debian repositories, which are similar to an app store.

To know which packages are available in Debian:

  • Browse locally with the Synaptic Package Manager:

    1. Configura una contraseña de administración cuando arrancas Tails.

    2. Choose Applications ▸ System Tools ▸ Synaptic Package Manager.

    3. Wait until Synaptic finishes downloading new package information from the Debian servers.

    4. You can:

      • Browse the packages by sections from the left sidebar.

      • Search on titles and descriptions of packages with the Search button.

  • Search the Internet for alternatives to other software.

    For example: "debian alternatives to photoshop".

  • Ask a friend who is knowledgeable about Linux.

  • Search the Debian website.

Being careful about what you install

La seguridad de los programas incluidos en Tails es revisada cuidadosamente. Instalar programas adicionales puede quebrar esta seguridad de Tails, así que ten cuidado con lo que instalas.

If you are unsure:

  • Los paquetes que usen la red deben configurarse para usar Tor. De lo contrario serán bloqueados de la red.

  • Some software might, for example, modify the firewall and break the security built in Tails. But other software like games or office tools are probably fine.

  • Software not officially included in Tails might have not been tested for security. We also cannot provide support or documentation for it.

  • Only applications that are packaged for Debian can be installed and they are under public scrutiny.

Examples of additional useful software

Language packs

  • for LibreOffice: libreoffice-l10n-lang
  • for Thunderbird: thunderbird-l10n-lang

Replace lang with the code for your language. For example, es for Spanish or de for German.

Spell-checking dictionaries

  • hunspell-lang

The hunspell dictionaries are used for spell-checking by Tor Browser, LibreOffice, Thunderbird, and many other applications.

Replace lang with the code for your language. For example, es for Spanish or de for German.

Instalar software adicional

To install a package using Synaptic:

  1. Configura una contraseña de administración cuando arrancas Tails.

  2. Choose Applications ▸ System Tools ▸ Synaptic Package Manager.

  3. Click Search and search for the name of the package.

  4. Right-click on the name of the package in the search results and choose Mark for Installation.

  5. Synaptic calculates the additional changes for your package to work. Click Mark to confirm those changes.

  6. Click Apply to download, install, and configure the package.

If you are comfortable with the command line, you can use the apt command instead.

Instalar software adicional automáticamente cuando arrancas Tails

To do so, you need to enable the Additional Software persistence feature.

After a package is installed using Synaptic or apt, a notification appears to ask if you want to install this package every time you start Tails in the future.

  • If you choose Add to Persistent Storage, the package is saved in the persistent storage and will be reinstalled automatically every time you start Tails.

    The package will also be updated automatically when you connect to the Internet.

  • If you choose Install Only Once, the package is also saved in the persistent storage but won't be reinstalled automatically every time you start Tails.

    The same package can be reinstalled faster for some time because you won't have to download it again.

Additional configuration

Some packages require additional configuration to work. To keep the configuration across Tails sessions, you can use the Dotfiles persistence feature.

Verificando tu lista de software adicional

To see which packages are installed automatically every time you start Tails, choose Applications ▸ System Tools ▸ Additional Software.

Click the button to remove a package from the list.

The same list is also available from the configuration of the persistent storage, by clicking on the button of the Additional Software feature.

Removing additional software

When you installed the package, if you chose:

  • Install Only Once, you can remove it by restarting Tails.

  • Add to Persistent Storage, you can remove it:

    • Using Additional Software:

      1. Choose Applications ▸ System Tools ▸ Additional Software.

      2. Click the to the right of the name of the package.

    • Using Synaptic:

      1. Configura una contraseña de administración cuando arrancas Tails.

      2. Choose Applications ▸ System Tools ▸ Synaptic Package Manager.

      3. Click Search and search for the name of the package.

      4. Right-click on the name of the package in the search results and choose Mark for Removal.

      5. Click Apply to remove the package.

    • From the command line using apt.

    After the package is removed, a notification appears to ask if you want to remove this package from your list of additional software.

Freeing space in your persistent storage

After you installed many packages that you are not using anymore, you can free some space in your persistent storage:

  1. Configura una contraseña de administración cuando arrancas Tails.

  2. Choose Applications ▸ System Tools ▸ Root Terminal to open a Root Terminal.

  3. Ejecuta el siguiente comando:

    apt clean
    

Configuring additional APT repositories (for advanced users)

The packages available in Debian are submitted to public scrutiny.

Configuring additional APT repositories might break the security built in Tails and might install software that has not even been approved by Debian. Be even more careful with what you install.

This step is usually not needed to install additional software and might be necessary only in very rare occasions.

A veces puede que necesites configurar repositorios APT adicionales. Por ejemplo, para instalar paquetes de la sección non-free de Debian. Para hacer esto:

  1. Configura una contraseña de administración cuando arrancas Tails.

  2. Crea un directorio apt-sources.list.d en tu volumen persistente:

    sudo install -d -m 755 /live/persistence/TailsData_unlocked/apt-sources.list.d
    
  3. Edita la configuración del volumen persistente, /live/persistence/TailsData_unlocked/persistence.conf, como administrador y añade el directorio apt-sources.list.d como una función persistente del tipo link:

    /etc/apt/sources.list.d  source=apt-sources.list.d,link
    
  4. Escribe tus archivos sources.list adicionales en el directorio apt-sources.list.d. Por ejemplo, para añadir las secciones non-free de Debian Jessie, backports y updates de seguridad, puedes crear un archivo llamado /live/persistence/TailsData_unlocked/apt-sources.list.d/non-free.list con el siguiente contenido:

    deb tor+http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie non-free
    deb tor+http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie-backports non-free
    deb tor+http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates non-free
    

    Los nombres de los archivos deben terminar con .list y sólo pueden contener los siguientes caracteres: letras, números, subrayado, guión y punto.

  5. Corrige la propiedad y los permisos de tus archivos sources.list adicionales para que sean propiedad de root y sólo puedan ser leídos por otros. Por ejemplo:

    chown root:root /live/persistence/TailsData_unlocked/apt-sources.list.d/non-free.list
    chmod 644 /live/persistence/TailsData_unlocked/apt-sources.list.d/non-free.list
    
  6. Reinicia Tails para aplicar los cambios.