Tor Browser es un navegador web basado en Mozilla Firefox y configurado para proteger tu privacidad.

Por sí solo, Tor no basta para proteger tu anonimato y privacidad mientras navegas por la web. Todos los navegadores web modernos, como Firefox, soportan JavaScript, Adobe Flash, cookies, y otros servicios que han demostrado ser capaces de derrotar a el anonimato proporcionado por la red Tor.

Tor Browser integrates all sorts of security measures to prevent such attacks. But since Tor Browser disables some dangerous functionalities, some sites might not work as usual.

Puedes encontrar algunas preguntas frecuentes sobre el Navegador Toren el FAQ.

Si quieres navegar páginas en tu red local, lee nuestra documentación sobre acceder recursos en tu red local.

Confinamiento de AppArmor

Tor Browser in Tails is confined with AppArmor to protect the system and your data from some types of attacks against Tor Browser. As a consequence, Tor Browser in Tails can only read and write to a limited number of folders.

This is why, for example, you might face Permission denied errors if you try to download files to the Home folder.
  • Puedes guardar lo archivos desde Tor Browser a la carpeta Tor Browser que se encuentra en la carpeta Home. El contenido de esta carpeta desaparecerá cuando apagues Tails.

  • Si quieres subir archivos con Tor Browser, cópialos a esa carpeta primero.

  • Si has activado la funcionalidad persistente Personal Data también puedes usar el directorio Tor Browser dentro del directorio Persistente. En ese caso, los contenidos de este directorio se guardarán y quedarán disponibles para sesiones posteriores.

Para poder descargar archivos más grandes que la memoria RAM disponible, necesitas activar la funcionalidad persistente Personal Data.

HTTPS encryption with HTTPS Everywhere

Using HTTPS instead of HTTP encrypts your communications while browsing the web.

All the data exchanged between your browser and the server you are visiting is encrypted. HTTPS prevents the Tor exit node from eavesdropping on your communications.

HTTPS also includes mechanisms to authenticate the server you are communicating with. But, those mechanisms can be flawed, as explained on our warning page.

For example, here is how the browser looks when we try to log in to an email account at riseup.net, using their webmail interface:

Notice the padlock icon on the left of the address bar saying "mail.riseup.net". Notice also the address beginning with "https://" (instead of "http://"). These are the indicators that an encrypted connection using HTTPS is being used.

When you are sending or retrieving sensitive information (like passwords), you should try to only use services providing HTTPS. Otherwise, it is very easy for an eavesdropper to steal whatever information you are sending, or to modify the content of a page on its way to your browser.

HTTPS Everywhere is a Firefox extension included in Tor Browser. It is produced as a collaboration between The Tor Project and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. It encrypts your communications with a number of major websites. Many sites on the web offer some limited support for encryption over HTTPS, but make it difficult to use. For example, they might default to unencrypted HTTP, or fill encrypted pages with links that go back to the unencrypted site. The HTTPS Everywhere extension fixes these problems by rewriting all requests to these sites to HTTPS.

To learn more about HTTPS Everywhere, you can see:

Protección contra los peligros de JavaScript

Having all JavaScript disabled by default would disable a lot of harmless and possibly useful JavaScript, and might render many websites unusable.

That is why JavaScript is enabled by default in Tor Browser.

But, we rely on Torbutton to disable all potentially dangerous JavaScript.

We consider this as a necessary compromise between security and usability. As of today we are not aware of any JavaScript that would compromise the anonymity provided by Tails.

To understand better the behavior of Tor Browser, for example, regarding JavaScript and cookies, you can refer to the Tor Browser design document.

Control deslizante de seguridad

You can use the security slider of Tor Browser to disable browser features as a trade-off between security and usability. For example, you can use the security slider to disable JavaScript completely.

The security slider is set to Standard by default which gives the most usable experience.

To change the value of the security slider, click on the button on the left of the address bar and choose Security Settings…

Deslizador de seguridad en su valor predeterminado (bajo)

Tor circuit

Click on the Show site information button in the address bar to show the Tor circuit that is used to connect to the website in the current tab, its 3 relays, their IP addresses, and countries.

The last relay in the circuit, the one immediately above the destination website, is the exit relay. Its country might influence how the website behaves.

Click on the New Circuit for this Site button to use a different circuit.

You can use Onion Circuits to get more detailed information about the circuits being used.

New Identity feature

The New Identity feature of Tor Browser:

  • Closes all open tabs.
  • Clears the session state including cache, history, and cookies (except the cookies protected by the Cookie Protections feature).
  • Closes all existing web connections and creates new Tor circuits.
  • Erases the content of the clipboard.

To switch to a new identity, click on the button on the left of the address bar and choose New Identity.

This feature is not enough to strongly separate contextual identities in the context of Tails, as the connections outside of Tor Browser are not restarted.

Restart Tails instead.

For more details, see the design and implementation of the Tor Browser.

NoScript to have even more control over JavaScript

Tor Browser includes the NoScript extension to allow more control over JavaScript, for example, to disable JavaScript completely on some websites.

By default, NoScript is disabled and some JavaScript is allowed by Tor Browser, as explained above.

For more information, you can refer to the NoScript website and features.