virt-manager es una solución de virtualización de software libre para Linux. virt-manager tiene una interfaz más compleja que VirtualBox o GNOME Boxes pero también tiene un conjunto más completo de funcionalidades.

Running Tails inside a virtual machine has various security implications. Depending on the host operating system and your security needs, running Tails in a virtual machine might be dangerous.

virt-manager es la única solución de virtualización que presentamos que permita el uso de un Almacenamiento Persistente. Lee Ejecutar Tails desde una imagen USB.

The following instructions have been tested on Debian 11 (Bullseye).

Please, let us know if they do not apply to Debian 12 (Bookworm).

Terminología

virt-manager está basando en un conjunto de herramientas de virtualización de bajo nivel, desde la interfaz de usuario a las interacciones de hardware con el procesador. Esta terminología es un poco con confusa y otra documentación puede mencionar las siguientes herramientas:

  • KVM es el módulo del kernel de Linux que interactúa con el las funcionalidades de virtualización del procesador.
  • QEMU es el software de virtualización que emula procesadores virtuales y periféricos basado en KVM y que inicia y detiene las máquinas virtuales.
  • libvirt es una biblioteca que permite que virt-manager interactúe con las capacidades de virtualización provistas por QEMU.
  • SPICE es un protocolo que permite ver el escritorio de las máquinas virtuales.
  • virt-manager es la interfaz gráfica que permite crear, configurar, y ejecutar máquinas virtuales.

Instalación

Para instalar virt-manager en Debian, ejecuta el siguiente comando:

sudo apt install virt-manager libvirt-daemon-system

Para instalar virt-manager en Ubuntu, ejecuta el siguiente comando:

sudo apt install virt-manager libvirt-bin qemu-kvm

Ejecutar Tails desde una imagen ISO

  1. Download an ISO image.

  2. Inicia virt-manager.

  3. Haz doble click en localhost (QEMU) para conectarte al sistema QEMU de tu anfitrión.

  4. To create a new virtual machine, choose File ▸ New Virtual Machine.

  5. En el paso 1, elige Medio de instalación local (Imagen ISO o CDROM).

  6. In step 2:

    • Choose ISO image, then Browse..., and Browse Local to browse for the ISO image that you want to start from.

    • Disable Automatically detected from the installation media / source.

    • Specify Debian 10 in the field Choose the operating system you are installing.

  7. In step 3, allocate at least 2048 MB of RAM.

  8. In step 4, disable storage for this virtual machine.

  9. En el paso5:

    • Type a name of your choice for the new virtual machine.

    • Haz click en Finalizar para arrancar la máquina virtual.

If you get the error message "Error starting domain: Requested operation is not valid: network 'default' is not active", then try to start the default virtual network:
  1. Click on localhost (QEMU).
  2. Choose Edit ▸ Connection details to administer the connection to your local QEMU system.
  3. Click on Virtual Networks tab, then select the default virtual network in the left pane.
  4. Click on the Start Network icon on the bottom of the left pane to start the default virtual network.

Ejecutar Tails desde una imagen USB

Running Tails from a USB image is the only virtualization solution that allows you to use a Persistent Storage in a virtual machine.

  1. Descargar una imagen USB en vez de una imagen ISO.

  2. Increase the size of the USB image to be at least 8 GB. This creates space for automatic upgrades and the Persistent Storage.

    truncate -s tamaño tails.img

    • tamaño debe ser al menos 7200M.
    • tails.img es el nombre del archivo de la imagen USB que quieres redimensionar.
  3. Inicia virt-manager.

  4. Haz doble click en localhost (QEMU) para conectarte al sistema QEMU de tu anfitrión.

  5. To create a new virtual machine, choose File ▸ New Virtual Machine.

  6. In step 1, choose Import existing disk image.

  7. In step 2:

    • Choose Browse..., and Browse Local to browse for the USB image that you want to start from.

    • Specify Debian 10 in the field Choose the operating system you are installing.

  8. In step 3, allocate at least 2048 MB of RAM.

  9. In step 4:

    • Type a name of your choice for the new virtual machine.

    • Choose Customize configuration before install.

    • Click Finish to open the configuration view.

  10. In the configuration view, choose VirtIO Disk 1 or IDE Disk 1

    • Set Disk bus to USB.

    • Click Apply.

    • Expand the Advanced options.

    • Enable Removable.

    • Click Apply again.

    • Click Begin Installation in the top left corner to start the virtual machine.

After you start on the USB image, you can create a Persistent Storage on it.

Running Tails from a USB stick

To run Tails from a USB stick using virt-manager, first create a virtual machine running from an ISO image as described above.

Then do the following:

  1. From the virtual machine window, choose Virtual Machine ▸ Shut Down ▸ Force Off to shut down the virtual machine.
  2. Plug in the USB stick from which you want to run Tails.
  3. Choose View ▸ Details to edit the configuration of the virtual machine.
  4. Click on the Add Hardware button on the bottom of the left pane.
  5. Select USB Host Device in the left pane.
  6. In the right pane, click on the device from which you want to run Tails, and click Finish.

You can keep the original ISO image connected as a virtual DVD to install Tails onto the USB stick if needed.

You can also disconnect the original ISO image and start directly from the USB stick once Tails is already installed on it. To do so:

  1. Apaga la máquina virtual.
  2. In the configuration of the virtual machine, click on IDE CDROM 1 in the left pane.
  3. Click on the Disconnect button in the right pane.
  4. To enable the USB stick as a boot option:
    1. Click on Boot Options in the left pane.
    2. Select the USB boot option corresponding to your USB device.
    3. Click Apply.
  5. To start the virtual machine choose View ▸ Console and then Virtual Machine ▸ Run.

After you start on the USB device, you can create a Persistent Storage on it.

Solución de problemas

Problemas de gráficos

Issues with graphics support in Tails running inside a virtual machine with virt-manager are common. The best solution can vary depending on the version of the virtualization solution and on the virtual machine configuration. For example:

  • The Auto resize VM with window feature does not work in all configurations.
  • The video device that provides optimal graphics performance can be different depending on the version of the host operating system.

To troubleshoot such issues:

  1. Ensure the virtual machine has a Spice display and a Spice channel configured, as opposed to VNC ones.

  2. Try various virtual video device models.

    Start with Virtio and QXL video devices: they generally give the best results. If they don't perform well for you, try every other video device model.