This reports covers the activity of Tails from February 2015 and until the end of July 2015, as no contract was signed before August.

Everything in this report can be made public.

A small number of these deliverables are late compared to the initially planned milestones, because without a contract and the guarantee that they would be paid, contractors have "only" done the vast majority of the work, but did not feel strictly bound to these deadlines yet.

A. Replace Claws Mail with Icedove

Due to an important security issue that we discovered in Claws Mails we want to move faster on the migration to Icedove and try to have it in Tails 1.7 (November 3) instead of Tails 1.9 (January 26). Icedove in Tails 1.7 will fallback on the account wizard provided by TorBirdy, and Icedove in Tails 1.9 will have the usual Icedove wizard with additional security (for example with TLS enforced).

B. Improve our quality assurance process

B.1. Automatically build ISO images for all the branches of our source code that are under active development

Any active Tails development branch is now built automatically on our Jenkins server. Since this piece of infrastructure has been deployed, every day at least 20 branches have been built, which exceeds the goal (ten per day) that we had set. The latest builds can be found on

This is the first stage towards integrating our automated test suite at the core of our software development process, and to run it continuously on our development versions while they are being developed.

The steps that lead to completion of this project where:

  • B.1.1. Improve the Puppet code of our ISO building server (based on Jenkins) to be able to replicate our setup as needed: #6938 and #6056

    Once this refactoring was completed, we successfully validated it by replicating our Jenkins setup locally. This should for example help new contributors participate in infrastructure improvements.

  • B.1.2. Have a mechanism to automatically update Jenkins jobs when changes to their code are pushed through Git: #5898

    This, along with the next few completed tasks, enabled us to have the Jenkins build jobs dynamically generated based on activity that happens in the main Tails code repository, in a fully automated way.

  • B.1.3. Decide what kind of branches qualify for automatic building: #8655

    After an initial design was proposed by our infrastructure team, other Tails developers were involved in the discussion to make sure that what we were going to set up was a good match for their needs. It was a long process, but after a few iterations we were confident that we had identified the most important issues and resolved them, which proved to be correct once the whole system was deployed later on.

  • B.1.4. Improve automatic cleanup of nightly built ISO images: #6439

    The program that takes care of garbage collecting ISO images built on our Jenkins infrastructure was previously buggy. Issues in the algorithm were identified, a new algorithm was designed and implemented, which resolved the issue. This will make it easier for developers to debug regressions: they now have more data points to compare.

  • B.1.5. Publish and upstream our improvements to the Jenkins Puppet module to ease its maintenance: #9682

    Tails has a policy of working hand-in-hand with upstream when feasible, as a way to share our improvements with the outside world, and more pragmatically as a way of keeping our project sustainable on the long run. Here, we have worked with the upstream author of the puppet-jenkins module and had our improvements merged upstream. As a result, we now are back to using the upstream version of this code.

  • B.1.6. Have topic branches built using the APT repository of their base branch (stable, devel, etc.) and not devel by default as is currently the case, merging them into their base branch. Adjust contributing processes and documentation accordingly: #8654

    We deemed it important, when building ISO images from development branches, to make sure that they merge fine with the base branch they should land into eventually, and in turn that they build fine after this merge has been done. It proved to be seriously harder than expected: we had to encode information, in our Git tree, about which APT repositories should be used when building a Tails ISO image from a given branch, and to adjust great parts of our development & QA processes and infrastructure. Thankfully the result works well and makes the daily work of Tails developers easier.

  • B.1.7. Write library code that implements the automatic build criteria and parameters designed during the previous iteration: #8657

  • B.1.8. Write tools that generate a set of Jenkins jobs to build ISO images based on the aforementioned library code: #8656

    This is the implementation of the design we came up with previously (B.1.3). The vast majority of the code was implemented as a library, so that we can reuse it in the future for whatever may need it.

  • B.1.9. Deploy, refresh regularly our Jenkins jobs and automatically clean obsolete ones: #8658

    This was the final step, when we deployed live the entire piece of infrastructure, crossed fingers, and happily saw it work flawlessly.

B.2. Continuously run our entire test suite on all those ISO images once they are built

  • B.2.1. Adjust our infrastructure to run tests in parallel

    This was not fully completed. Some initial work has been done, though:

    • We have started adjusting our server setup, Puppet modules and maintenance procedures to cope with multiple test runners.
    • We have starting deploying more virtual machines that will act as test runners.
  • B.2.2. Decide what kind of ISO images qualify for testing and when, how to process, advertise, and store the results

    An initial draft design was written, posted on our development mailing list, and as a result the discussion has started but was not completed yet.

B.3. Extend the coverage of our test suite

Refactoring to make room for improvements in the next iterations

  • B.3.1. Use libguestfs for better disk handling in the test suite: #5294

    Using libguestfs gave us some noticeable performance improvements when running our automated test suite, and enables us more flexibility when dealing with disk images.

  • B.3.2. Reorganize the test suite: #6543

    After two years of active development, our test suite has seen a well-deserved spring clean up and refactoring, which allows us to add more tests in a maintainable way.

Writing more automated tests

  • B.3.3. Test "Report an error" launcher: #6904

    This was completed, and got rid of one more manual test we previously had to do at release time.

  • B.3.5. Write tests for I2P

    Some initial work has been done, but it has not been completed yet.

  • A great number of additional tests were written over the reporting period, as part of a project we have with another sponsor.

Make our test suite robust and faster

During this iteration, this included:

  • B.3.4. Research how we can use background snapshots more efficiently for speeding up the test suite and report upstream any bug we discover along the way, if any, in the hope that we can benefit more from this feature later on: #6094

    A proof-of-concept was created, and so far it is very convincing: e.g. we've seen 20-30% test suite runtime decrease on various hardware. We've been hit by a limitation in libvirt, and started discussing it with upstream. Next steps are to polish our proof-of-concept, merge it into our development branch, and report a kernel bug to Linux upstream.

  • During the reporting period, lots of efforts were put into making our test suite more robust, as part of a project we have with another sponsor.

C. Scale our infrastructure

C.2. Be able to detect within hours failures and malfunction on our services

This section is about monitoring the most critical pieces of the infrastructure that supports Tails development. We have some early progress to report about, even though this deliverable is technically part of a milestone that is still many months in the future.

  • C.2.3. Do an inventory of the services that need monitoring and prioritize: #8649

    We did that, and while we were at it we wrote a detailed specification for the upcoming monitoring system, which will help choose software and hosting.

  • Some initial experiments and comparisons were made with several monitoring systems. A dedicated virtual machine has been set up for these experiments.

C.3. Make it easier for new contributors to start working on Tails

Until a few months ago, cloning our main Git repository required downloading more than 300 MB of data. Most of this corresponded to files that were not useful anymore. This made it hard for new contributors to start working on Tails, so we had little choice but rewriting the history of this repository. This is what we did, and as a result our Git repository is now 75 MB large (the objective was: less than 150 MB).

As expected, the implied migration process was a bit hard for the least technical of Tails existing contributors (e.g. translators), but given good documentation and support, everyone was able to go through it.

We also made it so obsolete Git branches and APT repositories are now identified and cleaned up regularly.

This covers deliverables C.3.1 to C.3.7.

C.4. Maintain our already existing services

This covers deliverables C.4.1 and C.4.2.

Aside of the usual security updates and taking care of daily requests coming from the Tails development community, here are a few selected tasks we have completed:

  • completed the migration of our main server to new hardware;
  • moved the /promote/ website directory to a dedicated Git repository so that it can grow without cluttering the main one;
  • upgraded almost all our systems to Debian Jessie and adjusted our Puppet code accordingly;
  • set up an archive of the Tor Browser tarballs we need, which removes one of the blockers so previous tags in our Git repository can still be built in the future;
  • set up a Jenkins job to proactively check for upstream merge conflicts in our Tor Browser AppArmor profile;
  • improved and distributed our backup processes;
  • made it so our APT repository's keyring, and the exported APT repo's pubkey we publish, are automatically updated;
  • extended storage capacity on our main server;
  • set up the infrastructure that the automated test suite team requested (SSH, sftp, shared secrets repository);
  • written a Puppet module to deploy systems able to run our test suite.

D. Migration to Debian Jessie

We did quite some work on this migration. For details about bits that are not covered by this OTF project, see

D.2. Take advantage of systemd to improve the internals of Tails

  • D.2.1. Convert at least 4 of our custom initscripts to native systemd units

    The 9 custom initscripts currently shipped in Tails (based on Debian Wheezy) were converted to systemd unit files. Besides, while we were at it, we converted most of our custom GNOME session initialization scripts to systemd (9 more units in the end), as well as the MAC address spoofing subsystem.

  • D.2.2. Replace our patches to initscripts from Debian with systemd drop-in overrides

    This is work in progress: our Jessie branch still patches 13 initscripts. For the record, the goal we want to reach here is to go down to 9.

D.6. Upgrade Tails-specific tools to Debian Jessie technologies

  • D.6.1 Port Tails-specific tools from udisks 1 to udisks 2: #8292

    We have ported Tails Installer, Tails Upgrader, and the persistent volume assistant to udisks 2. As a result, our Jessie branch does not ship udisks 1 anymore, which forced us to port our automated test suite (that still relied on it) as well.

  • D.6.2 Adjust the memory wipe on shutdown feature for Debian Jessie: #7183, #8372 and #9032

    This ended up being quite involved, but was successfully completed.

    Besides, we have created a Debian package (codename: wiperam) that takes over this subsystem of Tails. The idea is that other similar projects could benefit from it, and once all the pre-requisites have been implemented in Debian, we could even make it available to all Debian and Ubuntu users.

  • D.6.3 Port WhisperBack, our integrated bug reporting tool, to Python 3

    The initial port is done; it implied replacing some of the libraries used by the Python 2 version, with others that support Python 3. The last remaining step is to add native SOCKS proxy support to this application, because for some reason the Python 3 version does not start under torsocks: #9412

E. Release management

  • Tails 1.3 was released on 2015-02-24:

    • Add Electrum bitcoin wallet.
    • Sandbox Tor Browser using AppArmor.
    • Add obfs4 pluggable transport.
    • Add keyringer to manage and share secrets using OpenPGP and Git.
    • Publish isohybrid images to simplify installation.
    • Enable tap-to-click and two-finger scrolling.
    • Add Ibus Vietnamese input method.
    • Improve support for OpenPGP smartcards.
  • Tails 1.3.1 was released on 2015-03-23:

    • We transitioned to a new signing key.
    • Updated Tor Launcher.
  • Tails 1.4 was released on 2015-05-12:

    • Update Tor Browser to include the security slider and better protection against third-party tracking.
    • Add a shortcut to gEdit in OpenPGP Applet.
    • Add paperkey to back up OpenPGP keys on paper.
    • Better support for Vietnamese in LibreOffice.
    • Disable security warnings when connecting to POP3 and IMAP.
    • Add support for more printers.
    • Upgrade Tor to
    • Remove the obsolete #i2p-help IRC channel.
    • Remove the command line email client mutt and msmtp.
    • Fix Unsafe and I2P browsers theme in Windows camouflage.
    • Remove the Tor Network Settings... from the Torbutton menu.
    • Upgrade syslinux for better hardware support.
    • Fix the localization of Tails Upgrader.
    • Fix the OpenPGP key servers configured in Seahorse.
    • Prevent Tor Browser from crashing when Orca is enabled.
  • Tails 1.4.1 was released on 2015-07-03:

    • Upgrade Tor Browser to 4.5.3.
    • Upgrade Tor to
    • Upgrade Linux to 3.16.7-ckt11-1.
    • Have AppArmor Deny Tor Browser access to the list of recently used files.
    • Fix automatic upgrades in Windows camouflage.