Internet connections restricted by captive portals pose a problem in environments like Tails, where all Internet traffic is routed through Tor. There's a catch 22 since the portal cannot be reached before Tor is working (and it most likely isn't reachable through Tor any way) and Tor cannot work before logging in to the portal. Since most (if not all) of these portals are web based, a web browser with direct Internet access seem required for avoiding this problem.


  • It must run a completely separate browser profile from the Torified browser.
  • It must be hard to start by mistake.
  • It must be hard to mistake for the Torified browser.
  • It must be configured to use the DNS provided by DHCP (which is required by some captive portals).
  • It must be granted full access to the network so that any captive portals can be reached.
  • It should be restricted access to as much information from the system as possible in case of leaks or compromise.


The aptly named Unsafe Browser implements all the above, although at this time only a reasonable effort has been made to sandbox it to fulfill the last point (restrict access to information).

User interface

The Unsafe Browser can be found in the Applications -> Internet section (with a "warning triangle" as icon) and does the following when started:

  1. Show a dialog asking the user for verification, while also briefly explaining that the Unsafe Browser won't be anonymous.
  2. "No" is the default answer, but if "Yes", we start a separate browser instance.
  3. The browser is configured to use a theme with scary colors (red).
  4. Its start page (locally stored) makes it clear that this is the Unsafe Browser and explains the issues involved with the Unsafe Browser and how to proceed from now on.


The Unsafe Browser is run by a separate clearnet user, wich is allowed to make TCP connections to any port, and UDP DNS queries; access to local services like Tor etc. are blocked so it cannot interfere with them if compromised. Restricting the TCP ports to HTTP(S) and DNS only is not done since some captive portals use non-standard ports. Port restrictions are a pretty weak defense any way since just one open port is enough to do anything.

The Unsafe Browser is run inside a chroot consisting of a throw away overlayfs union between a read-only version of the pre-boot Tails filesystem, and a tmpfs as the rw branch. Hence, the post-boot filesystem (which contains all user data) isn't available to the Unsafe Browser within the chroot. The chroot and overlayfs union is created upon Unsafe Browser start, and is torn down after it exits, forcefully killing any remaining processes run from inside it.

It should be noted that chroots are pretty weak jails, so an exploit could easily escape it and have access to the complete filesystem (as restricted for the clearnet user). Hence, the reason for using a chroot is not for that purpose, but for separating its insecure configuration from the rest of the Tails system. For instance, within the chroot the DNS server obtained through DNS is configured as the system resolver, which would be dangerous if used in the outside system.