Unfortunately, no single existing piece of software satisfies the above specification. It seems like everyone writes their own USB installer; after the following round-up has been made, this is no surprise at all: since such tools are designed to be dead easy for the non-technical end-user, every author selects the few features that are the most important ones for their intended audience, and generally writes a very ad-hoc piece of software. Therefore, every Live system project whose needs are slightly different from the others needs to write its own USB installer, possibly reinventing more or less wheels along the road.

We need to see if we can turn one of those tools into something that satisfies our specification; sadly, proceeding this way without forking the existing tool would probably need more initial development time than writing a new installer from scratch; we are not even sure any upstream author of such a software (good enough to be a possible viable basis) would want to make it more generic and maintain it this way; on the other hand, if we avoid forking or writing from scratch, we also avoid maintaining a Tails-specific tool on the long run.

Frontend UI

Wikipedia has a List of tools to create Live USB systems we should look at.

  • live-installer udeb and its live-installer-launcher desktop companion allows to run the Debian Installer from the bootloader; paraphrasing the manual: the "Live" Debian Installer flavour will proceed in an identical fashion to the normal installation but at the actual package installation stage, instead of using debootstrap to fetch and install packages, the "live" filesystem image is copied to the target. After this stage, the Debian Installer continues as normal, installing and configuring items such as bootloaders and local users, etc. This must be tested.

    Not usable without a lot of work: there is way too many questions asked, the graphical interface overlaps the panels (hence unreachable buttons), it tries to create a new user account, etc. Forget it, even if it was nice to have partman handy to configure partitions and bootloaders.

  • live-boot's todisk=DEVICE boot parameter could be used to copy the entire read-only media to the specified device; the process could then be:

    1. boot from CD
    2. use some documentation or GUI to partition the USB stick and take note of its device name
    3. reboot; at syslinux prompt add the todisk=DEVICE parameter using the previously noted device name; then let the system boot once from the USB stick, and use some documentation or GUI to install a bootloader on the USB stick. This step might be automated in live-boot.
    4. reboot and eject the CD: the system should now boot from USB.

    This only works for the "clone existing system" usecase, though.

  • Ubuntu's usb-creator

    • supposed to replicate exactly the CD to USB
    • how does it handle partitions?
  • UNetbootin

    • works on Windows and GNU/Linux
    • has a plugin architecture that only allows rebranding and pre-selection of the available distributions list
    • included in squeeze and sid, easily backported to Lenny
    • works like a charm to install an ISO image to USB, but the syslinux menu has the unetbootin logo instead of Debian's one; the installed syslinux defaults to the first menu entry (in Tails case, Arabic); are the other bits of syslinux menu (Debian Live help and so on) here?
    • part of Debian
    • non-destructive install: does not format the chosen partition
    • no support for partitioning nor persistent storage
    • works from a running Live CD; specify /dev/cdrom as ISO diskimage
    • how would upgrading work?
  • Ubuntu LiveUSB

    • (a bit too) simplistic
    • dedicated to "create a bootable Live USB medium from a running Ubuntu Live CD"
    • depending on sources, it partitions USB stick with one single 800MB partition or one partition using the whole device; in any case, it unconditionally overwrites the device's content
    • able to upgrade without re-partitioning the device?
    • launchpad
  • aptosid's aptosid-on-a-stick needs an input ISO (check again), and lacks partitioning capabilities, but it still deserves being looked at more thoroughly; see the manual.

  • Fedora's livecd-iso-to-disk:

    • manual
    • Gitweb
    • cleanly and defensively written in Bash
    • supports creating a file-backed filesystem for $HOME, LUKS-encrypted by default, in the same partition where the Live system is installed
    • uses parted
  • Fedora's liveusb-creator:

    • works on Windows and GNU/Linux
    • "non-destructive install", which means?
    • supports FAT and EXT filesystems
    • persistent storage creation: file-backed filesystem, no partitioning capabilities
    • actively developed (as of early 2011)
    • written in Python
    • input: ISO file or real CD
    • output: extracts ISO's content to the partition
    • does not use livecd-iso-to-disk
    • needs to be slightly adapted/extended to support non-Fedora Live systems, e.g. some directory names must be made configurable
    • sidux ships a modified version:
  • RIP’s mkusb and its README

  • SUSE Studio Image Writer(SUSE Studio ImageWriter, KIWI homepage, source code)

    • supports Windows and GNU/Linux
    • persistent storage creation - that is?


  • FUSBi

    • modified from UNetbootin; what are its enhancements?
    • supports Windows and GNU/Linux
    • no release in 2009 nor 2010
  • Incognito's root_overlay/usr/sbin/create-usb seems quite nice, as it allows using an existing fat32 partition.

    • no partition capabilities
  • Liberte Linux' burn-usb (old — 2010.0) creates a FAT32 partition for data and an ext2 partition where it copies the system to. It installs Grub on the USB stick.

  • Mandriva Seed

    • supports Windows and GNU/Linux
    • fork of Fedora's liveusb-creator; what are its enhancements?
  • Moblin's Image Writer

    • written in Python
    • simple dd wrapper with proper sanity checks
  • usb-imagewriter

    • seems like a clone of the good old rawwrite with no more feature at all
  • Windows installer for Ubuntu.

  • makebootfat: command line utility able to create bootable USB disks using the FAT filesystem and syslinux

    • available in Debian
    • able to autodetect/format/populate the USB disk in a single step without any user interaction
    • able to create disk images which are compatible with all the three standards USB-FDD, USB-HDD and USB-ZIP at the same time
    • if it supported partitioning as well, and supported Windows, it could be used to do most of the low-level work

Booting methods


Grub2's loopback support

Debian Live now supports Grub2 and fromiso=. The grub.cfg that is generated inside the binary image could be copied, adapted and used to (loopback) boot an ISO dropped on a USB stick.

Here is how to test this.

  1. Build a Debian Live iso or iso-hybrid image with a working live-boot installed in it, i.e. at least 2.0.12 (warning: Tails 0.6 series ship a buggy version).
  2. Create a ext2 filesystem on a USB stick partition.
  3. Copy a Tails ISO file at the root of the USB stick partition.
  4. Run ln -s . boot at the root of the (mounted) USB stick partition.
  5. Install Grub2 on the USB stick MBR, using the USB stick partition as --root-directory.
  6. Create a grub.cfg file in there and try a menu entry like this:

       menuentry 'test' --class debian --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
             insmod part_msdos
             insmod ext2
             insmod loopback
             insmod iso9660
             set root='(hd0,msdos1)'
             search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root b51975cd-c5ef-4b32-996a-2c8206516917
             loopback loop /binary.iso
             linux   (loop)/live/vmlinuz boot=live fromiso=/dev/sda1/binary.iso config
             initrd  (loop)/live/initrd.img


  • insmod ext2 is because the partition that hosts Grub2 and the ISO is a ext2 one
  • (hd0,msdos1) and the search UUID match this partition as well, from Grub2 point-of-view
  • /dev/sda1 is a path to this partition block device from inside the Live initrd
  • /binary.iso is the path to the ISO file, relative to the root of the partition
  • /live/vmlinuz1 and /live/initrd1.img are respectively the path to the kernel and ramdisk relative to the root of the ISO filesystem
  • boot=live enables live-boot and thus fromiso=
  • config enables live-config

This might fails at kernel load time with following error:

error: invalid magic number

In that case you probably need a newer Grub2 (see Debian bug #543924 for details).


  1. On some versions of Tails, this breaks the emergency shutdown on media removal.
  2. This is by no means a supported installation method. E.g. the kernel parameters shall be manually updated when replacing the ISO with a newer one.

Security matters

In the above example, the Grub2 configuration file must contain information about the partition where the ISO file is stored.

Doing this is feasible at install time, and ensures the ISO will be loaded from the right partition, rather than from a rogue one on the host system's hard-disk.

Other Live systems that don't face the same threat model as Tails tend to prefer using automagic ISO loopback support so that Grub2 itself finds a partition where a properly named ISO is stored, e.g. using GRML's patches against live-boot that add the findiso= boot parameter (by the way, does it respect live-media=removable ?); here is how they boot things up:

Grub2 combined with syslinux' memdisk

This is used by some in combination with Grub2, in place of its loopback support. The memdisk page on the syslinux wiki tells the whole low-level story and more.


  • GRML (grub-imageboot flavor) now supports booting using Grub2+memdisk; according to this blog post, support for doing this is in live-boot 2.0.14-1. The memdiskfind/phram/mtdblock approach this blog post talks of would ease cloning an existing Tails system, since it is supposed to provide a /dev/mtdblock0 device, which should be the .ISO image. See the details on the memdisk wiki page.
  • a blog post with a snippet for grub.d to automate booting ISO images from Grub2, using syslinux' memdisk

extlinux and memdisk

According to Philip Hands, who proposed this solution on Debian bug #534887, it is possible to use extlinux merely to chainload the image's own bootloader.


Various scripts, such as Benjamin FOURTICQ's one, aim at adding a persistent home-rw partition to a Debian Live disk image, generally using losetup and parted. They don't suit Tails specification as they depend on knowing in advance the size of the persistent volume the user wants to setup and obviously cannot setup encryption on it in place of the user.